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Student Number 983209015
Author Wei-da Kang(±d±L¹F)
Author's Email Address No Public.
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Department Graduate Institute of Materials Science and Engineering
Year 2010
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language English
Title The Structure-Activity Relationship of Carbon-Supported Pd-Cu Catalysts for Ethanol Oxidation Reaction in Alkaline Solution
Date of Defense 2011-06-07
Page Count 103
Keyword
  • alkaline
  • Dalloy (degree of alloying)
  • ECSA (electrochemical surface area).
  • ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR)
  • heat treatments
  • Pd-Cu/C
  • PdOx
  • PdSn
  • reducing temperature
  • SnO2
  • Abstract Direct¡@ethanol¡@fuel¡@cells¡@(DEFCs¡@are¡@considered¡@more¡@and¡@more¡@important¡@on¡@mobile¡@and¡@portable¡@applications.¡@Ethanol¡@is¡@environmental¡@friendly¡@and¡@can¡@be¡@massively¡@produced¡@by¡@biomass¡@or¡@agriculture.¡@Moreover,¡@the¡@byproduct¡@of¡@the¡@chemical¡@reaction¡@in¡@DEFCs¡@is¡@pure¡@water.¡@Therefore,¡@DEFCs¡@are¡@regarded¡@as¡@the¡@potential¡@green¡@technology¡@for¡@future¡@energy¡@systems.¡@However,¡@significant¡@challenges¡@in¡@the¡@development¡@of¡@DEFC¡@technology¡@are¡@limited¡@by¡@the¡@sluggish¡@kinetic¡@of¡@ethanol¡@oxidation¡@reaction¡@(EOR)¡@and¡@high¡@price¡@of¡@noble¡@metal¡@catalysts.¡@Therefore,¡@in¡@order¡@to¡@enhance¡@EOR,¡@development¡@of¡@high¡@performance¡@catalysts¡@by¡@means¡@of¡@manipulation¡@of¡@reducing¡@temperatures,¡@dealloying,¡@heat¡@treatments,¡@and¡@oxide¡@promoter¡@have¡@been¡@elucidated¡@systematically.¡@
    In¡@this¡@study,¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@(with¡@an¡@atomic¡@ratio¡@of¡@3:1)¡@electrocatalysts¡@are¡@prepared¡@by¡@the¡@deposition¡Vprecipitation¡@(DP)¡@method¡@using¡@H2¡@as¡@the¡@reducing¡@agent.¡@SnO2¡@modified¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts¡@are¡@prepared¡@by¡@the¡@two-steps¡@reduction¡@method.¡@On¡@the¡@other¡@hand,¡@dealloying¡@process¡@and¡@heat¡@treatments¡@have¡@been¡@applied¡@for¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts¡@to¡@alternate¡@structure¡@and/or¡@surface¡@oxidation¡@states¡@and¡@modify¡@the¡@EOR¡@performance¡@systematically.¡@The¡@activity-structure,¡@morphology,¡@surface¡@species¡@and¡@electroactivity¡@of¡@the¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@and¡@SnO2-modified¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts¡@are¡@characterized¡@by¡@the¡@thermal¡@gravimetric¡@analysis¡@(TGA),¡@inductively¡@coupled¡@plasma-atomic¡@emission¡@spectrometer¡@(ICP-AES),¡@energy¡@dispersive¡@spectrometer¡@(EDS),¡@X-ray¡@diffraction¡@(XRD),¡@high¡@resolution¡@transmission¡@electron¡@microscope¡@(HRTEM),¡@X-ray¡@photoelectron¡@spectroscopy¡@(XPS)¡@measurements,¡@and¡@cyclic¡@¡@voltammetry¡@(CV)¡@measurements,¡@respectively.¡@For¡@the¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts,¡@it¡@is¡@observed¡@that,¡@If/Ib¡@ratio,¡@degree¡@of¡@alloying¡@(Dalloy),¡@and¡@grain¡@size¡@increases¡@as¡@the¡@reducing¡@temperature¡@increases.¡@However,¡@severe¡@sintering¡@deteriorates¡@the¡@EOR¡@performance.¡@Therefore,¡@570¡@K¡@is¡@a¡@suitable¡@reducing¡@temperature¡@for¡@preparation¡@of¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts¡@with¡@fine¡@alloy¡@structure,¡@small¡@crystalline¡@size,¡@good¡@anti-poisoning¡@ability¡@and¡@excellent¡@EOR¡@performance.¡@
    During¡@dealloying¡@route,¡@the¡@electrochemical¡@surface¡@area¡@(ECSA)¡@of¡@as-reduced¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts¡@can¡@be¡@enhanced¡@after¡@5¡@cycles,¡@however,¡@their¡@EOR¡@activity¡@is¡@only¡@slightly¡@promoted.¡@After¡@dealloying¡@of¡@25¡@cycles,¡@¡@the¡@crystallinity¡@of¡@PdCu¡@alloy¡@becomes¡@severely¡@weak,¡@thus¡@degrading¡@the¡@EOR¡@performance.¡@For¡@the¡@heat-treated¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts,¡@H2¡@treatment¡@deconstructs¡@the¡@Pd-Cu¡@alloy¡@phase,¡@and¡@thereby¡@decreasing¡@the¡@Dalloy¡@and¡@surface¡@PdOx¡@composition.¡@On¡@the¡@contrary,¡@O2¡@treatment¡@causes¡@the¡@significant¡@enrichment¡@of¡@amorphous¡@PdOx¡@on¡@the¡@surface¡@and¡@crystalline¡@PdO¡@in¡@the¡@bulk,¡@which¡@do¡@not¡@benefit¡@EOR.¡@The¡@CO¡@treatment¡@optimizes¡@the¡@Dalloy¡@and¡@surface¡@PdOx¡@composition¡@of¡@the¡@catalysts,¡@thereby¡@enhancing¡@their¡@CO¡@oxidation¡@and¡@EOR¡@performance.¡@
    For¡@the¡@SnO2¡@modified¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts,¡@10¡@wt¡@%¡@of¡@Sn¡@addition¡@promotes¡@the¡@chronoamperometric¡@(CA)¡@performance,¡@attributed¡@to¡@the¡@significant¡@amount¡@of¡@PdSn¡@phase¡@in¡@the¡@bulk¡@and¡@SnO2¡@species¡@on¡@the¡@surface,¡@which¡@enhance¡@their¡@CO¡@oxidation¡@and¡@ECSA.¡@On¡@the¡@other¡@hand,¡@20¡@wt¡@%¡@Sn¡@additions¡@may¡@cause¡@a¡@great¡@amount¡@of¡@SnO2¡@on¡@the¡@surface¡@and¡@block¡@the¡@active¡@site¡@of¡@the¡@catalysts,¡@thus¡@retarding¡@the¡@EOR¡@performance.¡@Consequently,¡@the¡@Dalloy,¡@particle¡@size,¡@surface¡@oxidation¡@state,¡@surface¡@compositions,¡@and¡@structures¡@of¡@catalysts¡@are¡@significant¡@conditions¡@for¡@EOR.¡@
    In¡@this¡@research,¡@the¡@CO¡@heat-treated¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalyst¡@has¡@the¡@best¡@EOR¡@activity¡@which¡@is¡@enhanced¡@about¡@190¡@%¡@when¡@compared¡@with¡@the¡@as-reduced¡@sample.¡@In¡@terms¡@of¡@SnO2¡@modified¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts,¡@10¡@wt¡@%¡@of¡@Sn¡@modified¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts¡@containing¡@moderate¡@PdSn¡@phase¡@and¡@surface¡@SnO2¡@display¡@high¡@ECSA,¡@CO-oxidation¡@and¡@chronoamperometric¡@activity,¡@which¡@is¡@enhanced¡@about¡@230¡@%¡@when¡@compared¡@with¡@the¡@as-reduced¡@sample.
    Table of Content ºK­n¡D¡D¡D¡D¡Di
    Abstract¡D¡D¡D¡D¡Div
    »xÁÂ.....vii
    Table¡@of¡@Contents¡D¡D¡D¡D¡Dix
    List¡@of¡@Figures¡D¡D¡D¡D¡Dxii
    List¡@of¡@Tables¡D¡D¡D¡D¡Dxvi
    Chapter¡@I¡@Introduction¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D1
    1.DEFCs¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D2
    2.Anode¡@Catalysts¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D5
    2.1Pt-based¡@alloy¡@catalysts¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D5
    2.2Pd-based¡@alloy¡@catalysts¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D5
    2.3The¡@effect¡@of¡@metal¡@oxides¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D6
    2.4The¡@effect¡@of¡@reducing¡@temperatures¡@and¡@heat¡@treatments¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D9
    2.5The¡@effect¡@of¡@degree¡@of¡@alloying¡@(Dalloy)¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D11
    2.6The¡@effect¡@of¡@dealloying¡@process¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D13
    2.7The¡@EOR¡@mechanism¡@of¡@Pd¡@in¡@alkaline¡@solution¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D15
    3.Motivation¡@and¡@Approach¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D19
    Chapter¡@II¡@Experimental¡@Section¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D20
    1.Preparation¡@of¡@Catalysts¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D20
    1.1Preparation¡@of¡@Pd/C¡@and¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D20
    1.2Preparation¡@of¡@Pd-Cu/SnxC¡@catalysts¡@(x=10,¡@15¡@or¡@20)¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D20
    2.Modifications¡@of¡@As-reduced¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@(R570)¡@Catalysts¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D23
    2.1Electrochemical¡@dealloying¡@treatment¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D23
    2.2Heat¡@treatments¡@at¡@various¡@atmospheres¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D23
    3.Characterization¡@of¡@Catalysts¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D25
    3.1TGA¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D25
    3.2ICP-AES¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D25
    3.3EDS¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D25
    3.4XRD¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D25
    3.5HRTEM¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D27
    3.6XPS¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D27
    3.7Electrochemical¡@measurements¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D28
    Chapter¡@III¡@Results¡@and¡@Discussion¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D30
    1.The¡@Structure-Activity¡@Relationship¡@of¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@¡@Catalysts¡@Reduced¡@at¡@Different¡@Temperatures¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D30
    1.1The¡@XRD¡@characterization¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D30
    1.2The¡@EOR¡@activity¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D33
    2.The¡@Effect¡@of¡@Dealloying¡@Process¡@on¡@the¡@Electrochemical¡@Performance¡@of¡@As-reduced¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@(R570)¡@Samples¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D37
    2.1The¡@CV¡@measurement¡@of¡@catalysts¡@before¡@and¡@after¡@dealloying¡@in¡@0.1¡@M¡@HClO4¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D37
    2.2The¡@XRD¡@characterization¡@of¡@as-reduced¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts¡@before¡@and¡@after¡@dealloying¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D37
    2.3The¡@EOR¡@activity¡@of¡@as-reduced¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@catalysts¡@before¡@and¡@after¡@dealloying¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D40
    3.Enhancement¡@of¡@Electrochemical¡@Properties¡@on¡@As-reduced¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@Electrocatalysts¡@toward¡@Ethanol¡@Oxidation¡@by¡@Atmosphere¡@Induced¡@Surface¡@and¡@Structural¡@Alteration¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D43
    3.1The¡@XRD¡@characterization¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D43
    3.2The¡@HRTEM¡@characterization¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D46
    3.3The¡@EOR¡@activity¡@and¡@CA¡@tests¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D46
    3.4The¡@CO-stripping¡@characterization¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D50
    3.5The¡@CV¡@measurement¡@in¡@0.1¡@M¡@KOH¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D50
    3.6The¡@XPS¡@characterization¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D52
    3.7Summary¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D56
    4.The¡@Effect¡@of¡@SnO2¡@Modifier¡@on¡@The¡@Electrochemical¡@Properties¡@of¡@As-reduced¡@Pd-Cu/C¡@Electrocatalysts¡@toward¡@Ethanol¡@Oxidation¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D59
    4.1The¡@metal¡@loading¡@and¡@exact¡@atomic¡@compositions¡@of¡@the¡@catalysts¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D59
    4.2The¡@XRD¡@characterization¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D59
    4.3The¡@HRTEM¡@characterization¡D¡D¡D¡D63
    4.4The¡@EOR¡@activity¡@and¡@CA¡@tests¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D63
    4.5The¡@CO-stripping¡@characterization¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D66
    4.6The¡@CV¡@measurement¡@in¡@0.5¡@M¡@H2SO4¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D70
    4.7The¡@XPS¡@characterization¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D72
    4.8Summary¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D72
    Chapter¡@IV¡@Conclusions¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D75
    References¡D¡D¡D¡D¡D77
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    Advisor
  • Kuan-wen Wang(¤ý«a¤å)
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  • 983209015.pdf
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    Date of Submission 2011-07-15

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