Student Number 983202604 Author Desy Setyowulan(Ä¬¼wµ·) Author's Email Address firstname.lastname@example.org Statistics This thesis had been viewed 440 times. Download 11 times. Department Civil Engineering Year 2009 Semester 2 Degree Master Type of Document Master's Thesis Language English Title Dynamic Analysis of Ultimate State for Bridges with Multiple Unseating Prevention Devices Date of Defense 2010-07-16 Page Count 182 Keyword bridge ultimate state unseating prevention device vector form intrinsic finite Abstract In earthquake-prone areas, a bridge is unavoidably attacked by an earthquake which
has been noticed as the most frightened and destructive phenomenon of Nature. Observed
from the damaged bridges, column failure and deck unseating caused a more serious loss. The
purpose of this study is to clarify the effectiveness of multiple unseating prevention devices
for bridges by numerical simulations. Supplementary dampers are included in bridges to
improve the seismic capacity under strong earthquakes.
The Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element (VFIFE) is superior in managing the
engineering problems with material nonlinearity, discontinuity, large deformation, large
displacement and arbitrary rigid body motions of deformable bodies. In this study, the Vector
Form Intrinsic Finite Element (VFIFE) is thus selected to be the analysis method.
Two types of bridges, a six-span simply-supported bridge with rigid bearings and a
continuous bridge with rigid bearings, are analyzed. The hook and gap spring elements with
fracture strength are used to simulate the behavior of restrainers and stoppers, respectively.
The Maxwell model is developed to simulate the behavior of supplementary viscous dampers.
From the numerical analysis, it is found that installation of multiple unseating prevention
devices and supplementary dampers lead columns to collapse earlier. The performance of the
continuous bridge with rigid bearings is better than simply-supported bridge to prevent
unseating of the superstructure.
Table of Content ºKn . i
ABSTRACT . ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . iii
LIST OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES xviii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION. 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Literature Review . 2
1.2.1 Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element . 2
1.2.2 Unseating Prevention Devices 2
1.2.3 Supplementary Dampers . 4
1.3 Research Objectives . 5
1.4 Outline 5
CHAPTER 2 THE VECTOR FORM INTRINSIC FINITE ELEMENT . 6
2.1 Introduction of Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element . 6
2.2 Assumptions of VFIFE 6
2.3 Kinematics of a Frame Element . 7
2.3.1 Deformation Coordinates . 7
2.3.2 Rigid Body and Deformation Components 8
2.3.3 Internal Nodal Forces for the Frame Element 9
2.3.4 Equations of Motion . 12
2.4 The Central Difference Method . 13
CHAPTER 3 TARGET BRIDGES . 16
3.1 Design of Target Bridges . 16
3.1.1 Input Ground Motions 17
3.1.2 Case Study for Simulation 17
3.2 Unseating Prevention System 17
3.2.1 The Seating Length . 18
3.2.2 The Ultimate Strength of Unseating Prevention Devices . 18
3.2.3 Gap between Two Adjacent Girders 19
3.3 Numerical Models of Unseating Prevention Devices 19
3.3.1 Gap/Impact Spring Element . 19
3.3.2 Hook Spring Element . 20
3.4 Numerical Models of Bearings 21
3.5 Sliding of Structures . 22
3.6 Idealization of Target Bridges 24
3.6.1 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge with Rigid Bearings. 24
3.6.2 A Continuous Bridge with Rigid Bearings . 25
CHAPTER 4 SIMULATION RESULTS . 27
4.1 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge with Rigid Bearings 27
4.1.1 Failure Mechanism for the Bridge with Restrainers Type 1 and Stoppers under
170% of JR Takatory Record . 27
4.1.2 Failure Mechanism for the Bridge with Restrainers Type 1 and Stoppers under
180% of JR Takatory Record . 28
4.1.3 Parametric Study. 29
126.96.36.199 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge under JR Takatory Record . 29
188.8.131.52 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge under JMA Kobe Record . 30
184.108.40.206 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge under Sun-Moon Lake Record . 32
4.2 A Continuous Bridge with Rigid Bearings 33
4.2.1 Failure Mechanism for the Bridge with Restrainers Type 1 and Stoppers under
240% of JR Takatory Record . 33
4.2.2 Parametric Study. 34
220.127.116.11 A Continuous Bridge under JR Takatory Record . 34
18.104.22.168 A Continuous Bridge under JMA Kobe Record . 35
22.214.171.124 Continuous Bridge under Sun-Moon Lake Record . 36
4.3 Comparisons and Discussions 37
4.3.1 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge and a Continuous Bridge under JR
Takatory Record . 37
4.3.2 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge and a Continuous Bridge under JMA
Kobe Record 38
4.3.3 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge and a Continuous Bridge under Sun-
Moon Lake Record . 39
CHAPTER 5 SUPPLEMENTAL DAMPING . 40
5.1 Supplementary Damper 40
5.2 Maxwell Damper 40
5.3 Case Study 42
5.4 Parametric Study 42
5.4.1 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge under JR Takatory Record 42
5.4.2 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge under JMA Kobe Record 43
5.4.3 A Six-Span Simply Supported Bridge under Sun-Moon Lake Record 44
5.4.4 A Continuous Bridge under JR Takatory Record . 45
5.4.5 A Continuous Bridge under JMA Kobe Record . 46
5.4.6 A Continuous Bridge under Sun-Moon Lake Record 47
5.5 Comparison and Discussion . 48
5.5.1 A Six-Span Simply-Supported Bridge with and without Supplementary
Dampers under JR Takatory Record 48
5.5.2 A Six-Span Simply-Supported Bridge with and without Supplementary
Dampers under JMA Kobe Record 48
5.5.3 A Six-Span Simply-Supported Bridge with and without Supplementary
Dampers under Sun-Moon Lake Record . 49
5.5.4 A Continuous Bridge with and without Supplementary Dampers under JR
Takatory Record . 49
5.5.5 A Continuous Bridge with and without Supplementary Dampers under JMA
Kobe Record 50
5.5.6 A Continuous Bridge with and without Supplementary Dampers under Sun-
Moon Lake Record . 50
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION 51
6.1 Conclusions 51
6.2 Recommendation . 52
REFERENCES . 53
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Advisor Tzu-Ying Lee(§õ«º¼ü)
983202604.pdf Date of Submission 2010-08-16