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Student Number 983202603
Author Roland Martin(®u°¨¦a)
Author's Email Address martin_smtpng@yahoo.com
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 697 times. Download 305 times.
Department Civil Engineering
Year 2010
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language English
Title A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON STONE COLUMNS AS A COUNTERMEASURE FOR LIQUEFACTION OF SANDY SOIL STRATUM WITH INTRALAYERS OF SILT
Date of Defense 2011-07-15
Page Count 98
Keyword
  • intralayers of silt
  • liquefaction
  • numerical simulation
  • stone column
  • Abstract Strong earthquakes can cause serious damage to the failure of foundations and structures, which may result in loss of lives. From the geotechnical point of view, for a large earthquake one of the frequently occurred phenomenon is known as liquefaction. The common consensus about this phenomenon is that liquefaction may easily occur in a uniform loose sandy soil stratum. In reality, the presence of intralayers of silt may be found in the field. The smaller permeability of these silt layers may develop a water film at its bottom with a high pore water pressure, leading to failure of ground even long after the earthquake shaking stopped.
    In this study, the seismic responses of sandy soil stratum with silt layers were obtained by using nonlinear 3D effective stress finite element program. Verification and validation of the program was done first by comparing with centrifuge test results which are in good agreement. The parametric studies using nine numerical models were then conducted to investigate the behavior of liquefiable sand-silt stratum under strong earthquakes and to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of stone columns as a countermeasure in a liquefiable sand-silt stratum. 
    The use of stone columns can delay and reduce the accumulation of excessive pore water pressure; although in some cases liquefaction cannot be avoided. The stiffening benefit from stone columns also reduces the ground settlement which is in parallel with the area of treatment; but the effectiveness of stone columns decreases as the more intralayers of silt are introduced to the stratum. The presence of intralayers of silt will reduce the extent of liquefaction and significantly reduce the ground settlement; however, the large pore water pressure beneath each silt layer forms the water film which requires longer time to dissipate.
    Table of Content ºK ­ni
    ABSTRACTii
    ACKNOWLEDEMENTSiii
    LIST OF CONTENTSiv
    LIST OF TABLESvii
    LIST OF FIGURESviii
    NOTATIONSxi
    CHAPTER 1.INTRODUCTION1
    1.1.Background1
    1.2.Research Objectives1
    1.3.Organization of Thesis2
    CHAPTER 2.LITERATURE REVIEW3
    2.1.Introduction3
    2.2.Liquefaction3
    2.2.1.Definition of Liquefaction3
    2.2.2.Earthquake Liquefaction4
    2.2.3.Susceptibility of Liquefaction4
    2.3.Sand with Intralayers of Silt5
    2.3.1.Characteristic of Silt5
    2.3.2.Liquefaction of Sand with Intralayers of Silt6
    2.4.Countermeasure of Liquefaction8
    2.4.1.Type of Soil Countermeasure8
    2.4.2.Stone Column9
    CHAPTER 3.NUMERICAL FORMULATION11
    3.1.Basic Equation of Motion for Porous Media11
    3.2.Description of Cap Model and Pore Pressure Model13
    3.3.Numerical Integration17
    CHAPTER 4.VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION18
    4.1.Introduction18
    4.2.Description of Centrifuge Test18
    4.3.Description of Numerical Model19
    4.4.Input Motion of Numerical Simulation19
    4.5.Discussion of Numerical Simulation Result under Harmonic Input Motion20
    4.5.1.Settlement Analysis20
    4.5.2.Pore Water Pressure Analysis20
    CHAPTER 5.NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS22
    5.1.Introduction22
    5.2.Model Description22
    5.3.Earthquake Input Motion23
    5.4.Comparison of Results from Sand, Silt 1, and Silt 2 Models24
    5.4.1.Excessive Pore Water Pressure24
    5.4.1.1.Chiayi Input Motion24
    5.4.1.2.Taipei Input Motion25
    5.4.2.Settlement25
    5.4.2.1.Chiayi Input Motion25
    5.4.2.2.Taipei Input Motion26
    5.4.3.Summary26
    5.5.Excessive Pore Water Pressure of Liquefiable Ground Using Stone Columns as Countermeasure for Liquefaction26
    5.5.1.Chiayi Input Motion26
    5.5.1.1.Sand Model26
    5.5.1.2.Silt 1 Model27
    5.5.1.3.Silt 2 Model27
    5.5.2.Taipei Input Motion28
    5.5.2.1.Sand Model28
    5.5.2.2.Silt 1 Model28
    5.5.2.3.Silt 2 Model29
    5.5.3.Summary29
    5.6.Settlement of Liquefiable Ground Using Stone Columns as Countermeasure for Liquefaction29
    5.6.1.Chiayi Input Motion29
    5.6.1.1.Sand Model29
    5.6.1.2.Silt 1 Stratum30
    5.6.1.3.Silt 2 Model30
    5.6.2.Taipei Input Motion31
    5.6.2.1.Sand Model31
    5.6.2.2.Silt 1 Stratum31
    5.6.2.3.Silt 2 Stratum31
    5.6.3.Summary31
    CHAPTER 6.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS33
    6.1.Conclusions33
    6.2.Recommendations33
    REFERENCES34
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    20.Liu L., Dobry R. (1997), ¡§Seismic Response of Shallow Foundation on Liquefable Sand¡¨, Proc. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Satellite Conf., Japanese Geotechncial Society, pp. 103-108
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    22.Elgamal A-W., Zeghal M., Taboada V., Dobry R. (1996), ¡§Analysis of Site Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading using Centrifuge Testing Records¡¨, Soils and Foundations, Japanese Geotechnical Technology, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp 111-121
    23.Arulanandan K., Scott R.F. (1993), ¡§Verification of Numerical Procedures for The Analysis of Soil Liquefaction Problems¡¨, Proceedings of The International Conference on The Verification of Numerical Procedures for The Analysis of Soil Liquefaction Problems, Davis, California, USA
    24.Prakash S., Guo T. (1999), ¡§Liquefaction of Silts and Silt-Clay Mixtures¡¨, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 125, No. 8, pp 706-711
    25.Popescu R., Prevost J.H. (1993), ¡¨ Centrifuge Validation of a Numerical Model for Dynamic Soil Liquefaction¡¨, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 12, pp. 73-90
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    27.Chen W.F., Baladi G.Y. (1985), ¡§Soil Plasticity and Implementation¡¨, Elsevier Science publishing Co. Newyork.
    28.Pacheco M.P., Altschaeffl A.G., Chameau J.L. (1989), ¡§Pore Pressure Prediction in Finite Element Analysis¡¨, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering; 13:477-491.
    29.Malvick E.J., Kutter B.L., Boulanger R.W. (2008), ¡§Postshaking Shear Strain Localization in a Centrifuge Model of a Saturated Sand Slope¡¨, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 134, No. 2, pp 164-174
    30.http://www.google.com/imgres?q=silt
    31.http://www.google.com/imgres q=stone+column+installation
    Advisor
  • HUEI-TSYR CHEN(³¯¼z·O)
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    Date of Submission 2011-07-28

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