Title page for 973310607


[Back to Results | New Search]

Student Number 973310607
Author Mandla Mkhonta(Ҽw)
Author's Email Address No Public.
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 1139 times. Download 462 times.
Department International Master Program for Environment Sustainable Development
Year 2009
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language English
Title Mapping Changing Urbanization Patterns in Kwaluseni, Swaziland
Date of Defense 2010-07-27
Page Count 80
Keyword
  • Classification.
  • Geographical Information Systems
  • Google Earth
  • Inkhundla
  • Interpretation
  • Peri-urban
  • QuckBird
  • Urban
  • Abstract Urbanization has become an important issue for many developing countries. As the most densely populated inkhundla in Swaziland, Kwaluseni is experiencing dramatic landscape changes attributable to urbanization. This research examines the process of urbanization utilizing satellite imagery and GIS to analyze patterns of urban growth that occurred in two periods, 1999 and 2009. Change detection methods, based on manual interpretation of free high resolution satellite images and aerial photographs, were used to evaluate growth rates and development. Built-up areas were identified as areas that were occupied by housing structures but not strictly used for housing. The classification process involves two main steps: 1) creating a 30 m x 30 m grid; 2) visual interpretation of aerial photo and QuickBird satellite image from Google Earth. Land was classified into four classes of housing density data: 1) no housing; 2) low density; 3) medium density; and 4) high density. The results indicate that residential land uses were higher compared with industrial/commercial uses especially its peri-urban areas. The expansion, involves the conversion of agricultural land and open spaces. Overall, the findings demonstrate the growing importance of remote sensing and GIS approaches in tackling land use problems, especially urban growth. The methodology used in this study is suitable for studying changes in small areas as it involves visual detection.
    Table of Content Kni
    ABSTRACTii
    Acknowledgementsiii
    CONTENTSiv
    LIST OF FIGURESvi
    LIST OF TABLESviii
    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSix
    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION1
    1.1 Background1
    1.2 Research Problem5
    1.3 Objectives and Research Questions7
    1.4 Scope and Limitations of the Study8
    1.5 Conceptual Framework9
    CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW12
    2.1 Definitions and Terminology12
    2.2 Remote Sensing of Urban Change Studies12
    CHAPTER 3. THE STUDY AREA18
    3.1 General Background of Swaziland18
    3.2 Population18
    3.3 Economy19
    3.3.1 Factory Shells19
    3.4 Land22
    3.4.1 Land Tenure22
    3.4.2 Housing23
    3.5 The Study Area24
    CHAPTER 4. METHODOLOGY28
    4.1 Data Acquisition28
    4.1.1 Aerial Photographs28
    4.1.2 Satellite Data29
    4.2 Data Preprocessing30
    4.2.1 Mosaicking Aerial Photos30
    4.2.2 Creating the QuickBird Image30
    4.2.3 Image-to-Image Registration32
    4.2.3a Image Transformation32
    4.2.3b Selection of Ground Control Points33
    4.2.3c Root Mean Square Error35
    4.2.3d Image Resampling36
    4.3 Housing Density Classification37
    4.4 Spatial Data Analysis40
    CHAPTER 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION41
    5.1 Spatial Distribution of Houses41
    5.2 Housing Change Detection44
    5.2.1 Urban Area46
    5.2.2 Peri-Urban Area48
    5.3 Buffer Analysis52
    5.4 Analysis of Drivers of Land-Use Change54
    5.4.1 Population55
    5.4.2 Land Tenure56
    5.4.3 Public Utilities and Services56
    5.4.4 Public Policies and Impacts on Land-Use Change57
    5.5 Google Earth as a Research Tool58
    CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS60
    6.1 Conclusions60
    6.2 Recommendations61
    REFERENCES63
    Reference Abbas, I.I., Muazu K.M., Ukoje, J.A., 2010. Mapping Land Use-land Cover and Change Detection in Kafur Local Government, Katsina, Nigeria (1995-2008) Using Remote Sensing and GIS. Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 2(1): 6-12
    Arsalan, M.H., Mehdi, M.H., Hussain, M., 2006. A regional planning application of satellite image processing in Pakistan. Proceedings from the first international conference on Advances in Space Technologies, Islamabad, Pakistan, September 2V3.
    Bertaud, 1989. The Regulatory Environment of Urban Land in Indonesia: Constraints Imposed on the Poor Alain. World Bank.
    Bolstad, P.V., Gessler, P., Lillesand, T.M., 1990. Positional uncertainty in manually digitized map data. International Journal for Geographic Information Systems 4: 399-412.
    Booth, A. R., 1983. Swaziland: Tradition and Change in a Southern African Kingdom, Boulder, New York.
    Butler, D., 2006. The web-wide world. Nature 439: 776-779
    Carleer, A.P., Debeir, O., Wolff, E., 2005. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 11: 1285V1294.
    CSO, 1997. Swaziland census report: Ministry of Economic Planning and Development. Mbabane, Swaziland.
    CSO, 2007. Swaziland census report: Ministry of Economic Planning and Development. Mbabane, Swaziland.
    Cihlar J., 2000. Land cover mapping of large areas from satellites: status and research priorities. International Journal for Remote Sensing 21: 1093-1114.
    Cha, S., Park, C., 2007. The utilization of Google Earth images as reference data for the multitemporal land cover classification with MODIS data of North Korea, Korean Journal for Remote Sensing 23: 483-491.
    Champion, A.G., Hugo, G., 2004. New forms of urbanization: beyond the urban-rural dichotomy. Aldershot, Hants, England, Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
    Choguill, C.L., 2007. The search for policies to support sustainable housing. Habitat International 31: 143-149.
    Compieta, P., Di Martino, S., Bertolotto, M., Ferrucci, F., and Kechadi, T., 2007. Exploring spatio-temporal data mining and visualization. Journal for Visual Language Computing 18: 255-279.
    Congalton., 1998. A Quantitative comparison of change-detection algorithms for monitoring eelgrass from remotely sensed data. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 64: 207-216.
    Constantine, J.A., Dunne, T., 2008. Meander cutoff and the controls on the production of oxbow lakes. Geology 36: 23-26.
    Donnay, J. P., Barnsley, M. and Longley, P., 2001. Remote Sensing and Urban Analysis. Taylor & Francis, Great Britain: 145-159.
    Ehlers, M., Jadkowski, M., Howard, R. Brostuen, D. E., 1990. Application of SPOT data for regional growth analysis and local planning. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 56:175V80.
    FAO., 2002. Food and Agricultural Organisation: land tenure studies V 3. Italy.
    Flanagin, A.J. Metzger, M.J., 2008. The credibility of volunteered geographic information. GeoJournal:137-148.
    Foody, G. M., 2001. Status of land cover classification accuracy.
    Frenkel, A., Ashkenazi, M., 2008. Measuring urban sprawl: how can we deal with it? Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 35: 56 V 79.
    Gilbert, A. and Gugler, J., 1982. Cities, poverty and development: Urbanization in the third world. Oxford: Oxford U.K.
    Google, Inc. Press Release: Google Announces Major Imagery Update for Google Earth, New Tools and Innovations in Mapping, Mountain View, California, USA, 12 June, 2006, (www.google.copm/press/pressrel/geoday.html).
    Google, Inc. Press Release: Introducing Google Earth Outreach, Mountain View, California, USA, 26 June, 2007. (www.google.copm/press/pressrel/outreach_20070625.html).
    Google Earth, 2009. Google Earth. http://earth.google.com/tour.html. Accessed 04/05/09.
    Guralnick, R.P., Hill, A.W., Lane, M., 2007. Towards a collaborative, global infrastructure for biodiversity assessment. Ecology Letter 10: 663-672.
    Habraken, N. J., 1998. The Structure of the Ordinary V Form and Control in the built Environment. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    Herbreteau, V., Salem, G., Souris M., Hugot, J.P., and Gonzalez, J.P., 2007. Thirty years of use and improvement of remote sensing, applied to epidemiology: from early promises to lasting frustration. Health Place 13:400-403.
    Herold, M.H., Liu, X., Clarke, K. C., 2003, Spatial Metrics and Image Texture for Mapping Urban Land Use. PE&RS 69: 991-1001.
    Hoek-Smit, M., 1988. Low income housing in Swaziland. Mbabane: Swaziland Government
    Islam, A. 2007. Physical Density and Urban Sprawl: A Case of Dhaka City. M.Sc. Thesis.
    Jennifer, K., Utzinger, J., Caldas de Castro, M., Smith, T.A., Tanner, M. and Singer, B.H., 2004. Urbanization in sub-saharan africa and implication for malaria control. AM. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 71: 118-127.
    Jensen, J. R., Cowen, D. C., 1999. Remote sensing of urban/suburban infrastructure and socio-economic attributes. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 65:611-622.
    John, H.N., 1998. The Structure of the Ordinary V Form and Control in the built Environment. MIT Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    Kamadjeu, R., 2009. Tracking the polio virus down the Congo River: A case study on the use of Google Earth™ in public health planning and mapping. International Journal of Health Geographics 9: 8 V 4.
    Kasenene, P., 1993. Swazi Traditional Religion and Society, Websters, Mbabane
    Kasarda et. al., 1991. Third world urbanization: Dimensions, theories, and determinants. Annual Review of Sociology 17: 467-501.
    Keiser, et. al., 2004. Urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa and implication for malaria control. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71: 118V127
    Kuper, H., 1964. The Swazi: A South African Kingdom. New York.
    Lambin, E.F., Geist, H., Lepers, E., 2003. Dynamics of land use and cover change in tropical regions. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 28: 205V241.
    LeBlanc, R. T., Brown, R. D., FitzGibbon, J. E., 1997. Modeling the Effects of Land Use Change on the Water Temperature in Unregulated Urban Streams. Journal of Environmental Management. Vol. 49: 445-469.
    Leitmann, J., 1994. Rapid Urban Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Cities in the Developing World: Methodology and Preliminary Findings, Vol.1. Urban Management and the Environment Series: World Bank Publications.
    Lillesand, T.M., Kiefer, R.W., Chapman, J.W., 2004. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. Fourth Edition. New York: Wiley. Chapter 7: Digital Image Processing, 491-637.
    Macleod, R.D., Congalton, R.G., 1998. A Quantitative Comparison of Change-Detection Algorithms for Monitoring Eelgrass from Remotely Sensed Data. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 64(3): 207-216.
    Madonsela, W.S., 2006. The textile and clothing industry of Swaziland: The future of the textile and clothing industry in Sub-Saharan Africa. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Bonn.
    Margai, F.M., Oigara, J., 2001. Evaluating the proliferation and impacts of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria. In Issues in Africa and the African Diaspora in the 21st Century, 109-121. Binghamton: Binghamton University Global Publications.
    Masek, J.G., Lindsay, F.E., Goward, S.N., 2000. Dynamics of urban growth in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area 1973-1996 from Landsat Observations. International Journal of Remote Sensing 21: 3473-3486.
    Masina, B. N., 2003. Planning the growth of peri urban settlements: Case Study of Manzini Swaziland. M.Sc. Thesis.
    McGregor, et. Al., 2006. Contemporary perspectives on the peri-urban zones of cities in development areas, In Peri-Urban Interface: Approaches to Sustainable Natural and Human Resource Use, edited by D. McGregor, D. Simon, and D. Thompson, pp. 3-17. London, UK: Earthscan Publications Ltd.
    Miles-Mafuro, M., 2000. Fantasies of development and housing provision for all? Revisiting urbanization issues in Swaziland.
    Miles, M., 2000. Urbanization in Swaziland: A post-independence assessment of its implications on the changing role of women. Urban Forum,11: 103-118.
    Monkkonen, P., 2008. Using Online Satellite Imagery as a Research Tool: Mapping Changing Patterns of Urbanization in Mexico. Journal of Planning Education and Research 28: 225-236.
    NDDC, 2009. National Data Development Center, Swaziland.
    Phillips, D.R., 1993. Urbanization and human health. Parasitology, 106: 93V107.
    Pontius Jr. R. G., Schneider, L., 2001. Land-use change model validation by a ROC method for the Ipswich watershed, Massachusetts, USA. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 85(1-3): .239-248.
    Ratcliffe, I.C., Henebry, G.M., 2005. Urban land cover change analysis: the value of comparing historical spy photos with contemporary digital imagery. In: (M. Moeller and E. Wentz, eds.) ISPRS Joint Conferences: 3rd International Symposium, Remote Sensing and Data Fusion Over Urban Areas (URBAN 2005) and 5th International Symposium, Remote Sensing of Urban Areas (URS 2005), International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, and Spatial Information Sciences 36: 1682-1777.
    Sihlongonyane, M.F., 2001. Rural-urban encounters in Swaziland: The case of Manzini City. DPU International Conference, University College London.
    Sihlongonyane, M.F., 2002. Local economic development in Swaziland: The case of Manzini City.
    Singh, A., 1989. Review Article: Digital change detection techniques using remotely-sensed data. International Journal Remote Sensing 10: 989-1003.
    Skole, D., Tucker, C., 1993. Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Amazon: satellite data from 1978 and 1988. Science 260: 1905-1910
    Southworth, J., Nagendra, H., Munroe, K. D., 2006. Introduction to the special issue: Are parks working? Exploring human-environment tradeoffs in protected area conservation. Applied Geography 26: 87-95
    Stefanov, W.L., Ramsey, M.S., and Christensen, P.R., 2001. Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification of semiarid to arid urban centers. Remote Sensing of Environment 77: 173-185.
    Stuckens, J., Coppin, P. R. and Bauer, M. E., 2000. Integrating contextual information with per-pixel classification for improved land cover classification. Remote Sensing of Environment 71: 282V 296.
    Suma, D., S. Vikas, Bhudev, S., 2010. Remote sensing image registration techniques: A survey. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6134: 103-112.
    Tacoli, C., 2006. The earthscan reader in rural-urban linkages (Earthscan Readers Series).
    Tang, Z., Engel, B.A., Pijanowski, B.C., and Lim, K.J., 2005. Forecasting land use change and its environmental impacts at a Watershed Scale. Journal of Environmental Management 76: 35-45.
    Thenkabail, P.S., Biradar, M., Noojipady, P., Cai, X., Dheeravath, V., Li, Y., Velpuri, M., Gumma, M., and Pandey, S., 2007. Sub-pixel area calculation methods for estimating irrigated areas. Sensors 7: 2519-2538.
    Turner I.I., B.L., Ross, R.H., Skole, D.L., 1993. Relating land use and global land cover change. IGBP report no 24, HDP report no 5: 65.
    UNFPA, 2007. State of the World Population 2007, UNFPA 45 (United Nations Population Fund, New York, 2007); www.unfpa.org/swp/2007/english/introduction.html.
    Ward, J. V., Malard, F., Tockner, K., 2002. Landscape ecology: a framework for integrating pattern and process in river corridors. Landscape Ecology 17: 3542.
    Welch, R.1982. Spatial Resolution Requirements for Urban Studies. International Journal of Remote Sensing 3 (2):139-146.
    World Bank, 2002. Upgrading low income urban settlements: country assessment report Swaziland.
    Zhang, B., Nan-Shan, A., Huang, Z., Yi, C., and Qin, F., 2008. Meanders of the Jialing River in China: Morphology and formation. Chinese Science Bulletin 5: 267-281.
    Advisor
  • Chi-Farn Chen(~ÿ)
  • Files
  • 973310607.pdf
  • approve immediately
    Date of Submission 2010-08-17

    [Back to Results | New Search]


    Browse | Search All Available ETDs

    If you have dissertation-related questions, please contact with the NCU library extension service section.
    Our service phone is (03)422-7151 Ext. 57407,E-mail is also welcomed.