Title page for 953403005


[Back to Results | New Search]

Student Number 953403005
Author Hsien-Chang Kuo(郭献彰)
Author's Email Address 953403005@cc.ncu.edu.tw
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 926 times. Download 309 times.
Department Mechanical Engineering
Year 2009
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document Doctoral Dissertation
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title Study on mechanical properties and microstructure of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene
Date of Defense 2010-06-21
Page Count 157
Keyword
  • Microinjection Compression Molding
  • Microinjection Molding
  • Tensile Strength
  • Tribological Properties
  • UHMWPE
  • Weld Line
  • Abstract The wear behavior, mechanical properties and microstructure of injection molded ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) parts has been studied. As far as tensile strength is concerned, the influences of process conditions and cross-sectional dimensions on the tensile strength of a weld line are investigated. In addition, the weld line characteristics of structures and different cross-sections are explored in this study as well. Five specimens, with different cross-sections, are injection molded simultaneously. With the Taguchi method, three process variables including melt temperature, mold temperature, and injection velocity were found to be the most significant. Furthermore, in order to understand more about the effect of the process parameter, the single-factor experiments are used. Experimental results show that the parametric influence is relatively little on the cross-sectional dimensions. The results also show that the tensile strength and surface hardness are affected at injection molding conditions and sliding contact loads. As far as wear behavior is concerned, experimental results show that the different wear contact loads and varied injection molding conditions have an influence for friction coefficient and wear volume loss of UHMWPE specimens. The higher sliding contact load results in a lower friction coefficient. Moreover, lower wear volume loss is often occurred in the specimen molded with the highest injection molding level. The morphologies of the worn surfaces and the cross-section of specimens were examined with optical microscope and scanning electron microscope, respectively. Plastic deformation, grooves and wavelike formation are the main wear mechanism on the surface in wear tests of UHMWPE. As far as microfabrication is concerned, replication accuracy was investigated for microinjection molding and microinjection compression molding. The mold insert was fabricated by stainless steel metal etching method. The mold insert includes rectangular groove of 100 μm, circular groove array of 100–300 μm and square groove array of 100–300 μm. Both the microinjection molded part and the microinjection compression molded part were observed under microscope to compare the replication accuracy. To measure the microstructure profile, a high performance surface profiler was used. Among mold insert, microinjection molded parts and microinjection compression molded parts were measured. The experiment results show that the UHMWPE can be filled in microcavities by microinjection molding and microinjection compression molding technology. The height and shape of microstructure were influenced by injection molding process parameters. For an injection molded part, injection velocity was the most influential factor. The height and shape of microstructure shows that microinjection compression molding was a more stable process than microinjection molding, due to it can provide an enough compression force.
    Table of Content 摘要i
    Abstractii
    誌謝iv
    目錄v
    圖目錄ix
    表目錄xiv
    符號說明xv
    第一章 緒論1
    1-1研究背景1
    1-2文獻回顧2
    1-2-1 UHMWPE相關文獻2
    1-2-2縫合線相關文獻5
    1-2-3微結構相關文獻7
    1-3研究動機與目的8
    1-4論文架構9
    第二章 理論基礎13
    2-1射出成型製程13
    2-2射出壓縮成型製程14
    2-3拉伸試驗16
    2-4縫合線17
    2-4-1影響縫合線強度的因素18
    2-4-2縫合線鍵結度18
    2-5維克氏硬度測試20
    2-6田口實驗方法20
    2-7磨潤理論23
    2-7-1摩擦23
    2-7-2磨耗24
    第三章 實驗方法與步驟35
    3-1實驗材料35
    3-2射出成型機與模溫機36
    3-3實驗模具和模仁的製作方法36
    3-3-1拉伸試片與磨耗試片模具37
    3-3-2微結構模具37
    3-3-3金屬蝕刻模仁38
    3-4試驗設備與方法39
    3-4-1拉伸試驗機39
    3-4-2摩擦與磨耗試驗機40
    3-4-3硬度試驗機41
    3-4-4表面輪廓儀41
    3-5實驗方法41
    3-6成品的量測方法與步驟42
    3-6-1拉伸試片的量測42
    3-6-2磨耗試片的量測43
    3-6-3微結構成品的量測44
    第四章 研究結果與討論55
    4-1拉伸試驗55
    4-1-1田口實驗分析56
    4-1-2無縫合線的拉伸單變數實驗分析57
    4-1-3有縫合線的拉伸單變數實驗分析59
    4-1-4無縫合線與有縫合線拉伸試片破斷面觀察59
    4-1-5縫合線表面觀察60
    4-1-6小結61
    4-2射出成型製程參數對摩擦與磨耗之影響61
    4-2-1摩擦行為62
    4-2-2磨耗行為63
    4-2-3磨耗機構65
    4-2-4拉伸強度和磨耗體積損失的影響66
    4-2-5硬度試驗66
    4-2-6小結67
    4-3磨耗參數對摩擦與磨耗之影響68
    4-3-1摩擦行為68
    4-3-2磨耗行為70
    4-3-3磨耗機構71
    4-3-4硬度試驗72
    4-3-5小結72
    4-4微結構成型實驗73
    4-4-1射出成型製程參數對微結構高度之影響74
    4-4-2射出壓縮成型參數對微結構高度之影響75
    4-4-3射出成型與射出壓縮成型之微結構成型性比較76
    4-4-4小結77
    第五章 結論與建議128
    5-1結論128
    5-2建議129
    參考文獻131
    個人簡歷 138
    Reference [1]D.S. Xiong and S.R. Ge, “Friction and wear properties of UHMWPE/Al2O3 ceramic under different lubricating conditions”, Wear, Vol. 250, pp. 242– 245, 2001.
    [2]C.Z. Liu, J.Q. Wu, J.Q. Li, L.Q. Ren, J. Tong and A.D. Arnell, “Tribological behaviours of PA/UHMWPE blend under dry and lubricating condition”, Wear, Vol. 260, pp. 109–115, 2006.
    [3]H. Sakoda, A.M. Voice, H.M.J. McEwen, G.H. Isaac, C. Hardaker, B.M. Wroblewski, and J. Fisher, “A comparison of the wear and physical properties of silane cross-linked polyethylene and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene”, The Journal of Arthroplasty, Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 1018–1023, 2001.
    [4]L.M. Fang, Y. Leng and P. Gao, “Processing and mechanical properties of HA/UHMWPE nanocomposites”, Biomaterials, Vol. 27, pp. 3701–3707, 2006.
    [5]N. Chand, U.K. Dwivedi and M.K. Shharma, “Development and tribological behaviour of UHMWPE filled epoxy gradient composites”, Wear, Vol. 262, pp. 184–190, 2006.
    [6]G.D. Liu, Y.Z. Chen and H.L. Li, “A study on sliding wear mechanism of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene/polypropylene blends”, Wear, Vol. 256, pp. 1088–1094, 2004.
    [7]D.S. Xiong, “Friction and wear properties of UHMWPE composites reinforced with carbon fiber”, Material Letters, Vol. 59, pp. 175–179, 2005.
    [8]J.Y. Sze and B.K. Tay, “Carbon ion implantation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene using filtered cathodic vacuum arc with substrate pulse biasing”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, pp. 4104–4110, 2006.
    [9]H. Unal and A. Mimaroglu, “Friction and wear behavior of unfilled engineering thermoplastics”, Materials and Design, Vol. 24 pp. 183–187, 2003.
    [10]J.J. Wu, C.P. Buckley and J.J. O’Connor, “Mechanical integrity of compression-moulded ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: effects of varying process conditions”, Biomaterials, Vol. 23, pp. 3773–3783, 2002.
    [11]S.R. Ge, S.B. Wang, N. Gitis, M. Vinogradov and J. Xiao, “Wear behavior and wear debris distribution of UHMWPE against Si3N4 ball in bi-directional sliding”, Wear, Vol. 264, pp. 571–578, 2008.
    [12]S.B. Wang and S.R. Ge, “The mechanical property and tribological behavior of UHMWPE: Effect of molding pressure”, Wear, Vol. 263, pp. 949–956, 2007.
    [13]J. Song, P. Liu, M. Cremens and P. Bonutti, “Effects of machining on tribological behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) under dry reciprocating sliding”, Wear, Vol. 225–229, pp. 716–723, 1999.
    [14]M. Ohta, S.H. Hyon, Y.B. Kang, S. Murakami, S. Kohjiya, M. Oka and S. Tsutsumi, “Effect of the compression ratio on wear properties of slightly cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene, crystallized under uniaxial compression”, Wear, Vol. 250, pp. 145–151, 2001.
    [15]C.H. da Silva and A. Sinatora, “Development of severity parameter for wear study of thermoplastics”, Wear, Vol. 263, pp. 957–964, 2007.
    [16]L.V. Wilches, J.A. Uribe and A. Toro, “Wear of materials used for artificial joints in total hip replacements”, Wear, Vol. 265, pp. 143–149, 2007.
    [17]Y. Xue, W. Wu, O. Jacobs and B. Schädel, “Tribological behaviour of UHMWPE/HDPE blends reinforced with multi-wall carbon nanotubes”, Polymer Testing, Vol. 25, pp. 221–229, 2006.
    [18]D. Sheejaa, B.K. Tay and L.N. Nung, “Tribological characterization of surface modified UHMWPE against DLC-coated Co-Cr-Mo”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 190, pp. 231–237, 2005.
    [19]Y.Q. Wang and J. Li, “Sliding wear behavior and mechanism of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 266, pp. 155–160, 1999.
    [20]G.D. Liu, Y.Z. Chen and H.L. Li, “A study on sliding wear mechanism of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene/polypropylene blends”, Wear, Vol. 256, pp. 1088–1094, 2004.
    [21]K. Marcus and C. Allen, “Effect of fillers on the friction and wear behaviour of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene during water-lubricated recipro¬cating sliding wear”, Wear, Vol. 162–164, pp. 1091–1102, 1993.
    [22]K. Marcus and C. Allen, “The sliding wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene in an aqueous environment”, Wear, Vol. 178, pp. 17–28, 1994.
    [23]T.S. Barrett, G.W. Stachowiak and A.W. Batchelor, “Effect of roughness and sliding speed on the wear and friction of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene”, Wear, Vol. 153, pp. 331–350, 1992.
    [24]尹德薈,「超高分子量聚乙烯的開發和應用」,中國青島化工學院塑膠工程系,2006。
    [25]北京化工大學科技處,「超高分子量聚乙烯製品注射成型技術」,北京化工大學,2006。
    [26]Y. Son, K.H. Ahn and K. Char, “Weldline morphology of injection molded modified poly (phenylene-oxide)/polyamide-6 blends”, Polymer Engineer¬ing and Science, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 554–565, 2000.
    [27]A.J. Heidweiller and M.J.M. Van Der Zwet, “Load-carrying ability of polystyrene products with molded-in holes”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 41, No. 8, pp. 1329–1336, 2001.
    [28]Y.H. Chung, K. Kato and N. Otake, “Melt front surface asperity and welding-defect generation in ceramic injection molding”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 111, pp. 219–224, 2001.
    [29]M. Seadan, P. Pongbhai, P. Thairaj and T.W. Kamtornkul, “Weld-line strength of rubber in injection molding effect of injection factors and compound characteristics”, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 83–92, 2002.
    [30]L.S. Turng and H. Kharbas, “Effect of process conditions on the weld-line strength and microstructure of microcellular injection molded parts”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 157–168, 2003.
    [31]E.M. Hagerman, “Weld-line facture in moulded parts”, Plastics Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 77–79, 1973.
    [32]S.G. Kim and N.P. Suh, “Performance prediction of weldline structure in amorphous polymers”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 26, No. 17, pp. 1200–1207, 1986.
    [33]R.P. Wool and K.M. O’Connor, “A theory crack healing in polymers”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 52, pp. 5953–5963, 1981.
    [34]K. Jud, H.H. Kausch and D. Francois, “Fracture mechanical studies of the strength resulting from polymer interdiffusion advanves in fracture research”, Oxford, 1981.
    [35]H. Yokoi, Y. Murata, H. Watanabe and K. Oka, “Visual analysis of weld line vanishing process by glass-inserted mold”, SPE ANTEC Technical Papers, Vol. 37, pp. 367–371, 1991.
    [36]C.H. Wu and W.J. Liang, “Effects of geometry and injection-molding parameters on weld-line strength”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 45, No. 7, pp. 1021–1030, 2005.
    [37]M.S. Despa, K.W. Kelly and J.R. Collier, “Injection molding of polymeric LIGA HARMs”, Microsystem Technologies, Vol. 6, pp. 60–66, 1999.
    [38]K. Mönkkönen, T.T. Pakkanen, J. Hietala, E.J. Pääkkönen, P. Pääkkönen, T. Jääskeläinen and T. Kaikuranta, “Replication of sub-micron features using amorphous thermoplastics”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 1600–1608, 2002.
    [39]L. Yu, C.G. Koh, L.J. Lee and K.W. Koelling, “Experimental investigation and numerical simulation of injection molding with micro-features”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 871–888, 2002.
    [40]C.H. Wu and W.S. Chen, “Injection molding and injection compression molding of three-beam grating of DVD pickup lens”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 125, pp. 367–375, 2006.
    [41]C.H. Wu and H.C. Kuo, “Parametric study of injection molding and hot embossing in polymer microfabrication”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 10, pp. 1338–1343, 2007.
    [42]楊衛民,「高分子材料注射成型加工極限化趨勢」,中國塑膠橡膠期刊2006年10月刊,2006。
    [43]D. Yao, “Injection molding high aspect ratio microfeatures”, Journal of Injection Molding Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 11–17, 2002.
    [44]K.M.B. Jansen and A.A.M. Flaman, “Construction of fast response heating elements for injection moulding applications”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 34, pp. 194–197, 1994.
    [45]R. Wimberger-Friedl, “Injection molding of sub-μm grating optical elements”, Journal of Injection Molding Technology, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 78–83, 2000.
    [46]J. Greener, “General consequences of the packing phase in injection molding”, Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 26, pp. 886–892, 1986.
    [47]彭信舒,「光學產品射壓成型製程特性之研究」,中原大學機械工程研究所,碩士論文,1999.
    [48]李育德等編著,「聚合物物性」,高立圖書有限公司,1995。
    [49]N.P. Suh and H.C. Sin, “The genesis of friction”, Wear, Vol. 69, pp. 91–114, 1981.
    [50]R.T. Spurr, “The friction of the polymers”, Wear, Vol. 79, pp. 301–310, 1982.
    [51]S. Bahadur and K.C. Ludema, “The viscoelastic nature of the sliding friction of polyethylene, polypropylene and copolymers”, Wear, Vol. 18, pp. 109–128, 1971.
    [52]R. Bassini, E.D. Pasquale and C. Vitali, “Probabilistic model for metal- polymer friction”, Wear, Vol. 95, pp. 177–191, 1984.
    [53]H. Unal, U. Sen and A. Mimaroglu, “Dry sliding wear characteristics of some industrial polymers against steel counterface”, Tribology International, Vol. 37, pp. 727–732, 2004.
    [54]J. Bijwe, J. Indumathi and A.K. Ghosh, “Role of fabric reinforcement on the low amplitude oscillating wear of polyetherimide composites”, Wear, Vol. 256, pp. 27–37, 2004.
    [55]W. Hirst and J.K. Lancaster, “Surface film formation and metallic wear”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 27, pp. 1057–1065, 1956.
    [56]F.P. Bowden, A.J.W. Moore and D. Tabor, “The ploughing and adhesion of sliding metals”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 14, pp. 80–91, 1943.
    [57]K.G. Budinski, “Hardfacing III: the wear process”, Welding Design and Fabrication, pp. 40–47, 1986.
    [58]蕭威典,「熔射覆膜技術」,全華科技圖書公司,2006。
    [59]陳興華,「LCD背光模組導光板成型模具精密蝕刻加工技術」,工業材料雜誌,第207期,2004。
    [60]陳文信,「網罩製造技術」,工業材料雜誌,第141期,1998。
    [61]K.H. Ho and M.C. Jeng, “Tribological characteristics of short glass fiber reinforced polycarbonate composites”, Wear, Vol. 206, pp. 60–68, 1997.
    [62]M.C. Jeng, C.P. Fung and T.C. Li, “The study on the tribological properties of fiber-reinforced PBT composites for various injection molding process parameters”, Wear, Vol. 252, pp. 934–945, 2002.
    [63]H. Fouad, A.H.I. Mourad and D.C. Barton, “Effect of pre-heat treatment on the static and dynamic thermo-mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene”, Polymer Testing, Vol. 24, pp. 549–556, 2005.
    [64]N.T. Oleg, F. Shin-Ichi, O. Sakae and I. Yoshito, “Surface studies of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene irradiated with high-energy pulsed electron beams in air”, Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics, Vol. 37, pp. 1503–1512, 1999.
    [65]N.T. Oleg, O. Sakae and I. Yoshito, “Surface cross-linking of polyethylene by electron beam irradiation in air”, Polymer, Vol. 39, pp. 6115–6220, 1998.
    Advisor
  • Ming-Chang Jeng(鄭銘章)
  • Files
  • 953403005.pdf
  • approve immediately
    Date of Submission 2010-07-20

    [Back to Results | New Search]


    Browse | Search All Available ETDs

    If you have dissertation-related questions, please contact with the NCU library extension service section.
    Our service phone is (03)422-7151 Ext. 57407,E-mail is also welcomed.