Title page for 945402005


[Back to Results | New Search]

Student Number 945402005
Author Yu-Sheng Su(Ĭ|)
Author's Email Address addison@csie.ncu.edu.tw
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 1060 times. Download 253 times.
Department Computer Science and Information Engineering
Year 2009
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document Doctoral Dissertation
Language English
Title Investigating the Role of Computer-Supported Annotation in Problem-based Programming Teaching: A Case Study of Scratch Programming Course
Date of Defense 2010-05-17
Page Count 106
Keyword
  • annotation systems
  • information technology education
  • problem-solving based instruction
  • Scratch programming
  • Abstract A limitation of current Scratch programming teaching is the restricted ability of students to help them annotate online materials or Scratch programming errors and obtain other peers assistance. This study developed an Annotation-based Programming aSsisted system (APS) which is able to help learners easily annotate their programs with comments asking for assistance.
    The objectives of this study are three-fold: (1) to investigate the effects of programming instruction modes and instructional tools on learning performance; (2) to understand students perceived attitudes toward the use of the APS system; and (3) to understand students in four groups view Scratch programming learning activities. A quasi-experimental was conducted with four classes of sixth-graders participated in the research for nine consecutive weeks.
    The analytical results of covariance showed a significantly interaction between programming instruction modes and instructional tools and its influence on learning performance. As for learning performance, the annotation supported problem-solving based instruction group outperformed other groups. The results of the questionnaire demonstrated that students were satisfied with the use of the APS system for helping them with annotating their materials or programming errors, obtaining assistance and asking questions. On completion of this course, the results of the in-depth interviews reported the APS system in the problem-solving based instruction approach enhances the development of students cognitive skills.
    Table of Content 1. Introduction KKKKKK 1
    1.1 Background KKKKK1
    1.2 Motivation KKKK 5
    1.3 Purposes of this research KKK8
    1.4 Scopes and limitations of this research KKKK 9
    1.5 Organization KKKKKKK10
    2. Literature review KKKKKK11
    2.1 Novice programmers KKKKKK11
    2.2 Teaching computer programming for primary school beginners K16
    2.2.1 Programming knowledge and programming performance test KKKK 18
    2.3 Problem-solving methodologies KKKK 20
    2.3.1 Problem-solving based teaching methods for primary school beginners KKKKK23
    2.4 Annotation and annotation systems KKKK26
    2.4.1 Annotation-based computer programming assisted systems KK29
    2.5 Technology acceptance model: TAM KKKK31
    3. System development and application KKK 32
    3.1 Annotation-based programming assisted environment K32
    3.2 The overview of annotation-based programming assisted system KK 33
    3.3 Annotation-based programming modeling KK 35
    3.3.1 Representation of annotation-based programming model K 35
    3.3.2 Annotation-based programming metadata KKK 36
    3.4 Annotation-based programming creation KKK 38
    3.5 Annotation-based programming retrieval KKK 40
    3.6 Annotation-based programming discussion KKKK 43
    3.7 In comparison with APS and existing annotation-based programming systems KKKK 44
    4. Methodology KKKKK46
    4.1 Participants and subjects KKKK 46
    4.2 Instruments KKKK 47
    4.2.1 Self-prepared Scratch materials and programming learning activities KKKK 47
    4.2.2 Scratch programming languages KKK 48
    4.2.3 Annotation-based programming assisted system: APS K51
    4.2.4 Prior knowledge test and programming achievement test K 58
    4.2.5 An APS attitude questionnaire KKK 60
    4.2.6 SPSS statistical software package KKK 60
    4.2.6 In-depth interview KKKKK60
    4.3 Procedures KKKKK 61
    4.4 Research structure and research variables KK 63
    4.4.1 Analysis of Covariance for programming teaching modes and instructional tools KKKKK 64
    5. Results and discussions KKKKK 66
    5.1 Analysis of prior knowledge KKK 66
    5.2 Analysis of learning performance KKK 68
    5.2.1 Analysis of simple main effects of the type of instructional tools on learning performance KK 69
    5.2.2 Analysis of simple main effects of the type of programming instruction modes on learning performance K 72
    5.2.3 Interaction of programming instruction modes and instructional tools KKKKKKK 74
    5.2.4 Analysis of the error pattern of the programming achievement test KKKKK75
    5.3 Analysis of the APS attitudes questionnaire KKK77
    5.3.1 Reliability and validity of the questionnaire KK 78
    5.3.2 Results of questionnaire analysis KKK79
    5.4 The results of the in-depth interviews KKK82
    6. Conclusion and suggestion KKKKK85
    Bibliography KKKKK88
    Appendix
    I. Self-prepared online materials KKKKK95
    II. Programming achievement test KKKKK103
    Reference Aiken, E.G., Thomas, G.S., & Shennum, W. (1975). Memory for a lecture: Effect of notes, lecture rate, and information density. Journal of Education Psychology, 439-444.
    Armstrong, S.J. & Overton, T.S. (1977). Estimating non-response bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(3), 396-402.
    Au, W. K., & Leung, J. P. (1991). Problem solving, instructional methods and LOGO programming. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 7(4), 455-467.
    Bancroft, P. & Roe, P. (2006). Program Annotations: Feedback for Students Learning to Program. Eighth Australasian Computing Education Conference.
    Bayman, P. & Mayer, R. E. (1988). Using conceptual models to teach BASIC computer programming. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 291-298.
    Ben-Ari, M. (2001). Constructivism in computer science education. Journal of Computers in Mathematics & Science Teaching, 20(1), 24-73.
    Begel, A. (1996). LogoBlocks: A Graphical Programming Language for Interacting with the World. Unpublished Advanced Undergraduate Project Report, MIT Media Lab.
    Bishop-Clark, C. (1992). Protocol analysis of a novice programmer. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 24(3).
    Bonar, J., & Soloway, E. (1989). Preprogramming knowledge: A major source of misconceptions in novice programmers. In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 324V353). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Cardelle-Elawar, M. (1992). Promoting self-regulation in mathematics problem solving through individualized feedback to bilingual students. Bilingual Review, 17(1), 36-42.
    Carmines, E.G. & Zeller, R.A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment. SAGE University Paper 17, Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.
    Carter, S.A., Churchill, E.F., Denoue, L., Helfman, J.I., & Nelson, L. (2004). Digital graffiti: public annotation of multimedia content. International Conference for Human-Computer Interaction, 1207-1210.
    Chang, S. H.-H., Chen, X., Priest R. A., & Plimmer B. (2008). Issues of extending the user interface of integrated development environments. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapter's International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Design Centered HCI.
    Chen, X. & Plimmer, B. (2007). CodeAnnotator: digital ink annotation within Eclipse. In Proceedings of the 2007 conference of the computer-human interaction special interest group (CHISIG) of Australia on Computer-human interaction: design: activities, artifacts, and environments.
    Cox, K.R. & Clark, D. (1994). Computing models that empower students. Computer Education, 24(4), 277-284.
    Dalton, D. W., & Goodrum, D. A. (1991). The effects of computer programming on problem-solving skills and attitudes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 7(4), 483-506.
    Davis, F.D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(1), 319-340.
    Davies, S.P. (1993). Models and theories of programming strategy. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39, 237V267.
    Detienne, F. (1990). Expert programming knowledge: A schema based approach. In J.M. Hoc, T.R.G. Green, R. Samurc¸ay, & D.J. Gillmore (Eds.), Psychology of programming (pp. 205V222). London: Academic Press.
    Dewey, J. (1910). How We Think. Boston, MA: Heath.
    du Boulay, B. (1989). Some difficulties of learning to program. In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), (pp. 283V299). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Dublin Core, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Retrieved 2001, Available from http://dublincore.org.
    Etter, D.M. (1995). Engineering Problem Solving with ANSI C: Fundamental Concepts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Fang, R.-J., Lee, C.-P., Chu, Y.-m., Liu, I.-H., Tsai, H.-L., & Yang, H.-c. (2008). The technology acceptance model with online learning for the principals in elementary schools and junior high schools. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 8th WSEAS International Conference on MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS and SIGNAL PROCESSING, Hangzhou, China.
    Felleisen, M., Findler, R. B., Flatt, M., & Krishnamurthi, S. (2004). The TeachScheme! project: Computing and programming for every student. Computer Science Education, 14(1), 55-77.
    Feng, C. Y., & Chen, M. P. (2008). Teaching Computer Programming in Elementary Schools: A Study on Design Digital-Game using Stagecast Creator. GCCCE, East Lansing, Michigan State University.
    Garner, S. (2009). Learning to program from Scratch. In Proceedings of the 9th IEEE international Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies.
    Gilmore, D.J. (1990). Expert programming knowledge: A strategic approach. In J.M. Hoc, T.R.G. Green, R. Samurc¸ay, & D.J. Gillmore (Eds.), Psychology of programming (pp. 223V234). London: Academic Press.
    Govender, I. & Grayson, D. (2006). Learning to program and learning to teach programming: A closer look. In Proceedings of the ED-MEDIA 206-World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications.
    Gomes, A, & Mendes, A.J. (2007). Learning to program - difficulties and solutions. In Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Engineering Education.
    Guzdial, M. (2004). Programming environments for novices. In S. Fincher and M. Petre (Eds.), Computer Science Education Research (pp. 127-154). Lisse, The Netherlands: Taylor & Francis.
    Hadamard, J. (1945) The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
    Hartman, H. (1996). Intelligent Tutoring. Clearwater, FL: H&H.
    Heh, J. S. (1999). Evaluation model of problem solving. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 30, 197-211.
    Hoc, J.M. (1989). Do we really have conditional statements in our brains? In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 179V190). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Hwang, W.-Y., Chen, N.-S., & Hsu, J.-L. (2006). Development and evaluation of multimedia whiteboard system for improving mathematical problem solving. Computers & Education, 46(2), 105-121.
    Hwang, W.Y., Wang, C.Y., & Sharples, M. (2007). A study of multimedia annotation of Web-based materials. Computer & Education, 48(4), 680-699.
    Hwang W.Y., Wang C.Y., Hwang G.J., Huang Y.M., & Huang S. (2008). A web-based programming learning environment to support cognitive development. Interacting with Computers, 20(6), 524-534.
    IBM. "Lotus Notes." from http://www-01.ibm.com/software/lotus/.
    Johnson, D.M. (1995). The Psychology of Thought and Judgment. NY: Harper.
    Mahmoud, Q. H., Dobosiewicz, W., & Swayne, D. (2004). Making computer programming fun and accessible. IEEE Computer, 37(2), 106-108.
    Maloney, J., Peppler, K., Kafai, Y., Resnick, M., & Rusk, N. (2008). Programming by choice: urban youth learning programming with scratch. In Proceedings of the 39th SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 267-371.
    Marshall, C.C. (1997). Annotation: From paper books to the digital library. Proceedings of the second ACM conference on digital libraries, 131-140.
    Mayer, R.E. (1992). Teaching for transfer of problem-solving skills to computer programming. In E. D. Corte, M. C. Linn, H. Mandl & L. Verschaffel (Eds), Learning environment and problem solving.
    Mayer, R.E., Dyck, J.L., & Vilberg, W. (1989). Learning to program and learning to think: whats the connection? In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 113V124). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    McGill, T., & Hobbs, V. (1996). A supplementary package for distance education students studying introductory programming. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 28(1), 73-77.
    Meier, S. L., Hovde, R. L., & Meier, R. L. (1996). Problem Solving: Teachers Perceptions, Content Area Models, and Interdisciplinary Connections. School Science and Mathematics, 96(5), 230-237.
    Microsoft. (2007). "OneNote." from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/onenote/default.aspx.
    Ministry of Education, R.O.C. (2009). General guidelines of grade 1-9 curriculum of elementary and second school education. Retrieved February 12, 2010, from http://teach.eje.edu.tw/9CC/index_new.php
    Kahney, H. (1989). What do novice programmers know about recursion? In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 209V228). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Kessler, C.M., & Anderson, J.R. (1989). Learning flow of control: Recursive and iterative procedures. In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 229V260). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Kelleher, C. & Pausch, R. (2005). Lowering the barriers to programming: a taxonomy of programming environments and languages for novice programmers. ACM Computing Surveys, 37(2), 88-137.
    Kingsley, H.L., & Garry, R. (1957). The Nature and Conditions of Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Kurland, D.M., Pea, R.D., Clement, C., & Mawby, R. (1989). A study of the development of programming ability and thinking skills in high school students. In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 83V112). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Lahtinen, E., Ala-Mutka, K & Jarvinen, H. M. (2005). A study of the difficulties of novice programmers. In Proceedings of the 10th annual SIGCSE conference on Innovation and technology in computer science education.
    Lin, J.M.-C., Yen, L.-Y., Yang, M.-C. & Chen, C.-F. (2005).Teaching computer programming in elementary school: a pilot study. National Educational Computing Conference.
    Linn, M. C. & Dalbey, J. (1985). Cognitive consequences of programming instruction: Instruction, access, and ability. Educational Psychologist, 20(4), 191-206.
    Linn, M.C., & Dalbey, J. (1989). Cognitive consequences of programming instruction. In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 57V81). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    LOM, Learning Object Metadata, Retrieved 2002, from http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg12/index.html.
    Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms. New York: Basic Books.
    Perkins, D. N., & Martin, F. (1986). Fragile Knowledge and Neglected Strategies in Novice Programmers. In E. Soloway, & Iyengar S., (Eds.), Empirical Studies of Programmers. 213-229.
    Pea, R. D. & Kurland, D. M. (1984). On the cognitive effects of learning computer programming. New Ideas in Psychology, 2(2), 137-167.
    Resnick, M., Rusk, N., & Cooke, S. (1998). Computer Clubhouse: Technological fluency in the inner city. In D. Schon, B. Sanyal and W. Mitchell (Eds.), High technology and low-income communities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Richard, P., & Beryl P.(2006). RCA: experiences with an IDE annotation tool. Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCHI New Zealand chapter's international conference on Computer-human interaction: design centered HCI.
    Rist, R. S. (1996). Teaching Eiffel as a first language. Journal of Object-Oriented Programming, 9, 30-41.
    Rist, R.S. (1995). Program structure and design. Cognitive Science, 19, 507V562.
    Rubinstein, M. (1975). Patterns of Problem Solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Rogalski, J., & Samurc¸ay, R. (1990). Acquisition of programming knowledge and skills. In J.M. Hoc, T.R.G. Green, R. Samurc¸ay, & D.J. Gillmore (Eds.), Psychology of programming (pp. 157V174). London: Academic Press.
    Robins, A., Rountree, J., & Rountree, N. (2003). Learning and teaching programming: A review and discussion. Computer Science Education, 13(2), 137-172.
    Sandhu R., Coyne E.J., Feinstein H.L., & Youman C.E. (1996). Role-Based Access Control Models. IEEE Computer, 29(2), 38-47.
    Samurc¸ay, R. (1989). The concept of variable in programming: Its meaning and use in problem solving by novice programmers. In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 161V178). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Sannomiva, T., Amagasa, T., Yokishawa, M. & Uemura, S. (2001). A framework for sharing personal annotations on Web resources using XML. The 2001 Workshop on Information Technology and Virtual Enterprises, 40-48.
    Salomon, G., & Perkins, D. (1985). Transfer of cognitive skills from programming: When and how? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 3(2), 149-169.
    Schunk, D.H. (2003). Learningtheories: An educational perceptive (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
    Schoenfeld, A.H. (1992). Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving, metacognition, and sence making in mathematics. In Handbook for Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning, D. Grouws, Ed. New York: Macmillan.
    Scratch (2009). Retrieved 15 Jan 2009, from http://scratch.mit.edu/.
    SCORM, Advanced Distributed Learning Network Shareable Content Object Reference Model. Retrieved 2003, from http://www.adlnet.org/.
    Shneiderman, B., & Mayer, R.E. (1979). Syntactic/semantic interactions in programmer behavior. A model and experimental results. International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences, 8, 219-238.
    Skinner, B.F. (1971). Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Knopf.
    Soloway, E., & Spohrer, J.C. (Eds.). (1989). Studying the novice programmer. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Soloway, E., Bonar, J., & Ehrlich, K. (1989). Cognitive strategies and looping constructs. In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 191V207). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Spohrer, J.C., Soloway, E., & Pope, E. (1989). A goal/plan analysis of buggy Pascal programs. In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 355V399). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Spohrer, J.C., & Soloway, E. (1989). Novice mistakes: Are the folk wisdoms correct? In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 401V416). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Surman, M., & Wershler-Henr, D. (2002). Commonspace: Beyond Virtual Community, Prentice Hall PTR.
    Osborn, A. (1953). Applied Imagination. New York: Scribners Sons.
    ODP, 2009, http://www.dmoz.org/
    Papert, S. (1980). Mindstorms: Children, computer, and powerful ideas. New York: Basic Books.
    Page-Jones, M. (1988). The Practical Guide to Structured Systems Design, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Pedersen, S. & Lin, M. (2003). Teachers' beliefs about issues in the implementation of a tudent-centered learning environment. Educational Technology, Research and Development, 51(2), 57-76.
    Perkins, D.N., Hancock, C., Hobbs, R., Martin, F., & Simmons, R. (1989). Conditions of learning in novice programmers. In E. Soloway & J.C. Spohrer (Eds.), Studying the novice programmer (pp. 261V279). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Peter, B., & Paul, R. (2006). Program annotations: Feedback for students learning to program. Eighth Australasian Computing Education Conference.
    Porter M. (1980). An algorithm for suffix stripping program. Automated Library and Information Systems, 14(3), 130-137.
    Polya, G. (1945). How to solve it: A new aspect of mathematical method. Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press.
    Tuma, D.T., & Reif Eds., F. (1980). Problem Solving and Education: Issues in Teaching and Research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 141V147.
    Tucker, A., Deek, F., Jones, J., McCowan, D., Stephenson, C. & Verno, A. (2003). A model curriculum for K-12 computer sciene: Final report of the ACM K-12 task force curriculum committee. New York, NY: The Association for Computing Machinery.
    W3C. "Amaya." from Retrieved 2008, From the Internet Poetry Archive web site: http://www.w3.org/Amaya/.
    Weinberg, G.M. (1998). The psychology of computer programming. New York Dorset House Pub.
    White, J.A. (1997). Teaching adult novices to program with Visual Basic. Journal of Computer Science Education, 12(2), 15-19.
    Wiedenbeck, S., Ramalingam, V., Sarasamma, S., & Corritore, C.L. (1999). A comparison of the comprehension of object-oriented and procedural programs by novice programmers. Interacting with Computers, 11, 255V282.
    Winslow, L.E. (1996). Programming pedagogy - A psychological overview. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, 28(3), 17-22.
    Wolz, U., Leitner, H. H., Malan, D. J., & Maloney, J. (2009). Starting with scratch in CS 1. In Proceedings of the 40th ACM Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education.
    Yang S.J.H., Chen I., & Shao N. (2004). Ontological Enabled Annotations and Knowledge Management for Collaborative Learning in Virtual Learning Community. Educational Technology and Society, 7(4), 70-81.
    Yang, S.J.H, Zhang, J., Su, A., Tsai, J.J.P., (2009). A Collaborative Multimedia Annotation Tool for Enhancing Knowledge Sharing in CSCL. Interactive Learning Environments.
    Yusuf, M.M. (1995). The effects of Logo-based instruction. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 12(4), 335-362.
    Advisor
  • Jenn-Hwa Yang()
  • Files
  • 945402005.pdf
  • approve in 3 years
    Date of Submission 2010-05-19

    [Back to Results | New Search]


    Browse | Search All Available ETDs

    If you have dissertation-related questions, please contact with the NCU library extension service section.
    Our service phone is (03)422-7151 Ext. 57407,E-mail is also welcomed.