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Student Number 93642003
Author Chia-Yen Ku(古佳艷)
Author's Email Address 93642003@cc.ncu.edu.tw
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Department Graduate Institute of Geophysics
Year 2010
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document Doctoral Dissertation
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title Seismic analysis of structures in the plate convergent zone between Taiwan and Luzon islands
Date of Defense 2011-06-28
Page Count 108
Keyword
  • Luzon
  • Manila subduction zone
  • Manila trench
  • plate convergence
  • seismic reflection
  • South China Sea
  • Taiwan
  • Abstract The Eurasian plate (EP) and Philippine Sea plate (PSP) convergence in the region between Luzon and Taiwan islands gradually evolves from normal subduction to initial collision. In order to better understand the structural characteristics of the subduction-collision transition between Taiwan and Luzon islands, we have analyzed the multichannel reflection seismic data and multibeam bathymetry data collected by R/V Marcus G. Langseth in 2009 and by R/V Ocean Researcher I in 2003.
    The results indicate a clear hemipelagic seismic sequence in the South China Sea (SCS) and Manila Trench. This sequence is dipping eastwards and is covered by thick trench-fill sediments in the south of the trench but has been eroded in the north. Structural analysis shows that the Manila Trench area can be distinguished by six structural zones: a normal fault zone (NFZ), a proto-thrust zone (PTZ), an imbricated thrust zone (ITZ), a frontal out-of sequence thrust zone (FOZ), an upper slope zone (USZ) and a back-thrust zone (BZ). Obvious subduction-related characteristics can be found in the south profiles between 18°45’N and 20°N, better than in the northern profiles between 20.5°N and 21°45’N. To the north, the décollement beneath the trench and frontal wedge is not clear and is disrupted by several buried seamounts or basement highs. Moreover, the width of PTZ becomes narrower, but ITZ and FOZ become wider. The subduction accretionary prism also gradually evolves into the foreland basin system receiving sediments from the Taiwan orogen.
    Because of the strong convergence between PSP and EP, the uplift of stratigraphic strata has occurred at the west side of the North Luzon Trough (NLT). To the north of 19°15’N, pop-up, uplifted structures, and west-vergent thrusts can be observed in the west side of NLT from MCS and bathymetry data, which indicates both thrusting and left-lateral strike-slip faulting due to the oblique plate convergence. But the strata are relatively flat in the east side of NLT, suggesting that the plate deformation mostly happen to the west of Luzon volcanic arc. This transpressional convergence along the west side of NLT might extend to the southern Longitudinal Valley off SE Taiwan.
    Table of Content 中文摘要i
    ABSTRACTii
    致 謝iii
    圖目錄vii
    表目錄ix
    第一章 導 論1
    1.1 研究動機與目的1
    1.2 研究目標3
    1.3 研究方法3
    1.3.1 反射震測資料參數及處理流程簡述3
    1.3.2 水深資料4
    1.3.3 震源機制解用於構造解釋5
    1.4 研究架構5
    第二章 地體背景10
    2.1 地質單元與相鄰構造10
    2.1.1 南中國海盆10
    2.1.2 馬尼拉海溝11
    2.1.3 增積岩體12
    2.1.4 北呂宋海槽(弧前盆地)15
    2.1.5 呂宋島弧(火山島弧)17
    2.2 震源機制與地震活動分佈18
    2.3 馬尼拉隱沒帶(北段)的地殼變形特徵19
    2.4 研究區域的沈積特性20
    2.4.1 臺灣西南海域的沈積研究20
    2.4.2 南海北部深水區域沈積研究21
    2.5 研究區內沈積地層之年代23
    第三章 研究區的震測地層特徵43
    3.1 引言43
    3.2 海盆東緣至海溝區內之主要震測層序劃分43
    3.2.1 基盤面B44
    3.2.2 R1強反射面、底層沈積層44
    3.2.3 頂層沈積層(S)45
    3.2.4 中層沈積層45
    3.3 海盆東緣至海溝區的震測剖面解釋45
    3.3.1 各測線的地層特徵46
    3.3.2 海盆東緣至海溝區地層的分佈與意義48
    3.4 滑脫面構造分佈48
    3.4.1 滑脫面定義48
    3.4.2 研究區內滑脫面分佈49
    3.5 討論49
    3.5.1 研究區內滑脫面特性探討50
    3.5.2 馬尼拉北段由震測顯示的隱沒特徵51
    3.5.3 強反射面R1之沈積特徵與可能的地質年代51
    3.5.4 由頂層沈積物的特性探討其地質年代及構造意義53
    第四章 構造楔形體到弧前盆地的構造分析70
    4.1 前言70
    4.1.1 震源機制解分佈70
    4.1.2 沿反射震測測線的水深資料71
    4.2 馬尼拉海溝區北段增積岩體的構造特徵71
    4.2.1 逆衝斷層的定義71
    4.2.2 馬尼拉海溝區的北段至構造楔形體的斷層構造與分區72
    4.2.3 菲律賓左移斷層系統向馬尼拉海溝延伸的可能性75
    4.3 弧前盆地與火山島弧區域的構造特徵75
    4.3.1 北呂宋海槽的構造特徵76
    4.3.2 呂宋島弧弧內盆地(intra-arc basin)的構造特徵78
    4.4 討論78
    4.4.1 北呂宋海槽與呂宋島弧的構造特徵與板塊聚合之間的意義79
    4.4.2 海溝至增積岩體區內的構造區分佈79
    4.4.3 隱沒海底山、分歧斷層、FOOST與地震的空間分佈80
    第五章 結論94
    參考文獻96
    附錄一 古佳艷歷年著作108
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  • Shu-Kun Hsu(許樹坤)
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  • 93642003.pdf
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    Date of Submission 2011-07-12

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