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Student Number 92623016
Author Hang-Ter Shei(謝瀚德)
Author's Email Address 92623016@cc.ncu.edu.tw
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Department Graduate Institute of Space Science
Year 2005
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title The use of GPS signals to estimate slant water vapor in Troposphere
Date of Defense 2006-07-11
Page Count 68
Keyword
  • GPS
  • slant
  • troposphere
  • Abstract The technique of observing water vapor in the atmosphere by GPS signals became popular in recent years, and the precision has already reached the micrometer level.
    The purpose of this study is to retrieve the content of water vapor associated to a GPS signal, which is important in the GPS tomographic method. In this research, we use the data of twenty four GPS stations in Taiwan to resolve zero difference residuals. The distances between these GPS stations are too short, so these residuals are relative values to those chosen fixed stations. Then we use the atmosphere model developed by our laboratory to solve the precipitable water vapor (PW) from a fixed station and the slant water vapor (SW) with a GPS signal.
    In this paper, we specially observe the track and SW of the No.30 and No.11 GPS satellite, because its data are almost complete, to study the correlation between SW and weather change. In the end, the result verifies with the water vapor radiometer (WVR) and they present good match.
    Table of Content 目 錄
    摘 要I
    ABSTRACTIII
    目 錄IV
    圖目錄VII
    表目錄XI
    第一章 前言1
    1-1 研究動機與目的1
    1-2 論文章節概述1
    第二章 簡介3
    2-1 大氣層簡介3
    2-1.1 對流層3
    2-1.2 平流層4
    2-1.3 中氣層4
    2-1.4 增溫層4
    2-2 GPS簡介5
    2-3 訊號與遲延量6
    2-3.1 中性大氣遲延7
    2-3.2 觀測方程式9
    2-3.3 遲延量求解與殘差13
    第三章 資料處理與工作流程16
    3-1 資料來源與儀器介紹16
    3-1.1 GPS資料16
    3-1.2 地面氣象資料19
    3-1.3 水氣微波輻射計20
    3-1.4 軟體部份21
    3-2 工作流程23
    3-2.1 零次殘差反演25
    3-2.2 GPS衛星座標轉換與軌跡做圖29
    3-2.3 映射函數31
    3-2.4 可降水含量(PW)與斜向水氣含量32
    第四章 觀測結果33
    4-1零次殘差分析33
    4-1.1零次殘差隨仰角變化之情形33
    4-1.2零次殘差隨當地測站變化之情形36
    4-1.3零次殘差隨颱風過境變化之情形38
    4-2斜向水氣含量49
    4-3接收站數目比較56
    4-4 GPS與水氣輻射計(WVR)之量測結果57
    4-5 衛星資料問題61
    第五章 結論與未來展望64
    5-1結論64
    5-2未來展望65
    參考文獻:67
    Reference [1] 劉說安、楊名,『GPS估計可降水量,WVR約束法』,大氣科學,
    1999。
    [2] 鄧諭敦,『利用GPS估算可降水量』,碩士論文,國立中央大學太
    空科學研究所,中壢,1999。
    [3] 王傳盛,『應用WVR及探空氣球資料於高精度GPS高程之研究』,碩士論文,國立交通大學,土木工程研究所,2000。
    [4] 林祐任,『GPS斷層掃描估算大氣濕折射係數模式』,碩士論文,國立中央大學太空科學研究所,中壢,2002。
    [5] 江振慶,『由GPS斷層掃描反演大氣濕折射度之數值模擬』,碩士論文,國立中央大學太空科學研究所,中壢,2003。
    [6] 曾珮莉,『近即時GPS觀測可降水技術之研究』,碩士論文,國立中央大學太空科學研究所,中壢,2005。
    [7] J. Braun, C. Rocken, J. Liljegren, Comparisons of line-of-sight water vapor observations using the Global Positioning System and a pointing microwave radiometer, J. Atm. Ocean. Tech., 20, 606-612, 2003.
    [8] J. Braun, C. Rocken, R. Ware, Validation of line-of-sight water vapor measurements with GPS, Radio Science., 36, 459-472, 2001.
    [9] C. Rocken, S. Sokolovoskiy, Improved Mapping of Tropospheric Delays, J. Atm. Ocean. Tech.,18,1205-1213,2001.
    [10]Alber, C., R. Ware, C. Rocken, J. Braun, Obtaining single path phase delays from GPS double differences, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27,2661-2664,2000.
    [11] Solheim, F. S., R. Vivekanandan, R. H. Ware, and C. Rocken, Propagation delays induced in GPS signals by dry air, water vapor, hydrometeors and other atmospheric particulates. J. Geophys.
    Res., 104, 9663–9670,1999.
    [12]Ware, R. H., C. Alber, C. Rocken, and F. Solheim, Sensing
    integrated water vapor along GPS ray paths. Geophys. Res. Lett.,
    24, 417–420,1997.
    [13] Bevis M., S. Businger, T. A. Herring, C. Rocken, R.A. Anthes, and R.H. Ware, GPS meteorology: Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor using the global positioning system, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 15, 784-801,1992.

    [14] Leick A., GPS satellite surveying, 3nd edn. Wiley, New York Chichester. Brisbane Toronto Singapore, 2004
    [15] Liou, Y. A., and C. Y. Huang, GPS observation of PW during the passage of a typhoon, Earth, Planets and Space, 52, 10, 709-712, 2000.
    [16] Rocken C., Sensing atmospheric water vapor with the Global Positioning System, Geo. Res. Let., 20, 2, 631-634, 1993.
    [17] Hofmann-Wellenhof B., Lichtenegger H. Collins J, Global Positioning System Theory and Practice, Springer, Wien New York, 1997.
    Advisor
  • Yuei-An Liou(劉說安)
  • Files
  • 92623016.pdf
  • approve immediately
    Date of Submission 2006-07-21

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