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Student Number 92521076
Author Wen-Hau Yang(楊文豪)
Author's Email Address No Public.
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 2583 times. Download 2426 times.
Department Electrical Engineering
Year 2004
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title Application of Contactless Impedance Image in Biologic Tissue
Date of Defense 2005-06-10
Page Count 76
Keyword
  • contactless
  • differential coil
  • impedance image
  • lock-in amplifier
  • Abstract In recent years, the bio-impedance measurement has become an emerging tool
    for biomedical research and medical practice. The conductivity of biologic tissue is
    usually accessed by electrodes attached on the object. There are many measurement
    errors which could rise in interface between electrodes and object. In order to reduce
    the contact error, it is necessary to develop a contactless impedance measurement.
    In this paper, we proposed an impedance image modality providing the
    conductivity distribution within the object. The measurement system includes
    differential coil, 2D scanning platform, lock-in amplifier, and graphical user interface.
    The transmittal coil produces a primary magnetic field and results in an eddy current
    in the object. The received coil picks up the secondary magnetic field resulting from
    the eddy current. The measured information is collected by the data acquiring card
    and performed by the two-dimensional image.
    From the experimental results, we have examined several variables affecting the
    performance of image quality, such as spatial resolution, signal to noise ratio. The
    conductivity distribution of biologic tissue and phantoms can be obtained successfully
    by the proposed imaging method. The experimental results not only provide the
    feasibility in contactless impedance image, but also provide an improvement in the
    future.
    In this work, there still exist many drawbacks to overcome. We hope to minimize
    the size of differential coil to improve the spatial resolution. The 2D scanning
    platform can be upgraded to a 3D platform. The sensor array can speed up the time
    cost of image reconstruction. Finally, many clinic applications can be developed
    based on the contactless impedance image.
    Table of Content 目 錄
                                  頁次
    中文摘要                     
    英文摘要                     
    目  錄                           I
    圖 目 錄                          IV
    表 目 錄                         VIII
    第一章 前言            1
    1.1 研究動機           1
    1.2 阻抗影像的背景        1
    1.3 阻抗量測在生物醫學的應用        3
    第二章 組織電學特性        4
    2.1組織的特性        4
    2.1.1 組織的電路模型        5
    2.1.2 組織阻抗表示的方式        6
    2.2 影響組織阻抗的因素        8
    2.2.1 組織阻抗與頻率的關係        8
    2.2.2 溫度與組織阻抗的關係        8
    2.2.3 時間與組織阻抗的關係        9
    2.2.4 非等方向性與組織阻抗變化的關係       10
    2.3 組織阻抗量測的應用       11
    2.3.1 皮膚阻抗與良導絡       11
    2.3.2 阻抗體積變化描記器       12
    第三章 影像系統       14
    3.1 理論方法       14
    3.1.1 運動點電荷產生的磁場       14
    3.1.2 BIOT-SAVART定律       16
    3.1.3 感應電動勢       17
    3.2 非接觸式阻抗影像量測系統       19
    3.2.1 系統架構       20
    3.2.2 掃描平台介紹       21
    3.2.3 穩壓電路       23
    3.2.4 人機介面       24
    3.3 線圈感測器       26
    3.4 訊號處理       30
    3.4.1 鎖頻放大器(Lock-in Amplifier)       30
    3.4.2 超取樣       32
    第四章 實驗與結果       40
    4.1 空間解析度實驗       40
    4.1.1 磁性與非磁性物質對空間解析度的影響       41
    4.1.2 線圈直徑對空間解析度的影響       45
    4.1.3 二維阻抗影像的空間解析度       47
    4.2 訊號雜訊比量測實驗       52
    4.3 假體量測實驗       56
    4.4 生物組織實驗       60
    第五章 結論與未來展望       67
    5.1 結論       67
    5.2 未來展望       68
    參考文獻       70
    論文著作       76
    圖 目 錄
                                 頁次
    圖2-1 在不同頻率下,電流與細胞之間的關係圖        5
    圖2-2 電流通過細胞內外的等效電路        5
    圖2-3 (a)四個電子元件;(b)三個電子元件細胞等效模型   6
    圖2-4 骨頭組織的特定阻抗與頻率之間的關係圖       10
    圖2-5 阻抗體積描記法的量測方式圖   13
    圖3-1 運動電荷產生的磁場   16
    圖3-2 載有電流之導線所產生之磁場   17
    圖3-3 系統同軸線圈結構圖   19
    圖3-4 硬體流程圖   20
    圖3-5 掃描路徑   20
    圖3-6 系統硬體圖   21
    圖3-7 (a)兩相式單繞組;(b)兩相式雙繞組步進馬達接線圖   22
    圖3-8 兩相式單繞組步進馬達驅動電路圖   22
    圖3-9 兩相式雙繞組步進馬達驅動電路圖   22
    圖3-10(a)避免不穩定的產生;(b)系統的保護電路    23
    圖3-11 本系統實際的穩壓電路   24
    圖3-12 圖控式人機介面   25
    圖3-13 程式流程圖   25
    圖3-14 一般非接觸式導電率影像係統基本原理圖   27
    圖3-15 線圈結構圖   27
    圖3-16 鐵心實體圖   28
    圖3-17 差動線圈和雙線圈的幾何結構   29
    圖3-18 差動線圈的接收線圈與傳輸線圈實體圖       30
    圖3-19 雙線圈的接收線圈與傳輸線圈實體圖   30
    圖3-20 鎖頻放大器基本流程圖   31
    圖3-21 鎖頻放大器實際接線圖   32
    圖3-22 類比-數位轉換的量化過程   33
    圖3-23 量化誤差的機率密度函數   34
    圖3-24 量化誤差的功率頻譜密度   36
    圖3-25 超取量後量化誤差的功率頻譜密度       36
    圖3-26 訊號為交流訊號(fs=6Hz)   38
    圖3-27 訊號為交流訊號(fs=12Hz)   38
    圖3-28 訊號為直流訊號(fs=6Hz)   38
    圖3-29 訊號為直流訊號(fs=12Hz)   38
    圖3-30 訊號為直流訊號(fs=6Hz)   39
    圖3-31 超取樣方塊圖   39
    圖4-1 空間解析度的定義   41
    圖4-2 空間解析度實驗一量測系統   42
    圖4-3 空間解析度量測系統(a)鐵片;(b)鋁片       42
    圖4-4 (a)空間解析度量測結果   43
    圖4-4 (b)空間解析度量測結果   43
    圖4-4 (c)空間解析度量測結果   44
    圖4-4 (d)空間解析度量測結果   44
    圖4-5 空間解析度實驗二量測系統   45
    圖4-6 空間解析度量測系統的待測物   45
    圖4-7 (a)空間解析度量測結果   46
    圖4-7 (b)空間解析度量測結果   46
    圖4-8 (a)鋁片一角落   47
    圖4-8 (b)掃描振幅影像   48
    圖4-8 (c)掃描相位影像   48
    圖4-9 (a)鐵片一角落   49
    圖4-9 (b)掃描振幅影像   49
    圖4-9 (c)掃描相位影像   50
    圖4-10(a)一段不規則鋁片   50
    圖4-10(b)掃描振幅影像   51
    圖4-10(c)掃描相位影像   51
    圖4-11(a)訊號雜訊比量測結果   54
    圖4-11(b)訊號雜訊比量測結果   54
    圖4-11(c)訊號雜訊比量測結果   55
    圖4-11(d)訊號雜訊比量測結果   55
    圖4-12(a)沒有加入食鹽水濃度假體實體圖   57
    圖4-12(b)掃描相位影像   57
    圖4-13(a)0.9%食鹽水濃度假體實體圖   57
    圖4-13(b)掃描相位影像   58
    圖4-14(a)9%食鹽水濃度假體實體圖   58
    圖4-14(b)掃描相位影像   59
    圖4-15(a)容器內裝有0.9%食鹽水濃度   59
    圖4-15(b)掃描振幅影像   60
    圖4-16(a)香蕉   61
    圖4-16(b)香蕉掃描相位影像   61
    圖4-16(c)香蕉(冷凍)掃描相位影像   62
    圖4-17(a)葉子   62
    圖4-17(b)葉子掃描相位影像   62
    圖4-18(a)豬肉   63
    圖4-18(b)豬肉掃描相位影像   63
    圖4-19(a)羊排   63
    圖4-19(b)羊排掃描相位影像   64
    圖4-20 國外論文(a)羊排   64
    圖4-20 國外論文(b)掃描結果   64
    圖4-21(a)三層肉   65
    圖4-21(b)三層肉掃描相位影像   66
    表 目 錄
                                 頁次
    表2-1 阻抗與導納轉換關係表   7
    表3-1 感測器線圈的規格參數表       29
    表4-1 感測器工作頻率及振幅大小   40
    表4-2 空間解析度量測結果(待測物:鐵片)   42
    表4-3 空間解析度量測結果(待測物:鋁片)   42
    表4-4 空間解析度量測結果(待測物:鋁片與鐵片)   45
    表4-5 訊號雜訊比量測結果   53
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  • Hung-Yuan Chung(鍾鴻源)
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    Date of Submission 2005-06-27

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