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Student Number 92322059
Author I-Jui Wu(吳宜叡)
Author's Email Address 92322059@cc.ncu.edu.tw
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 4907 times. Download 2138 times.
Department Civil Engineering
Year 2004
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title Certification of Intelligent Vehicle for Pavement Roughness Survey
Date of Defense 2005-06-28
Page Count 157
  • Intelligent Vehicle for Pavement Survey
  • International Roughness Index
  • Pavement Management System
  • Abstract Roughness is a vestige lengthways the section rises and falls of fluctuation quantity of the road surface, which influence the quality of the road to drive very much. The road of the roughness faces to drive the comfort quickly can raise the road service quality. Therefore, people who use the road will not feel well if there is high and low to rise and fall the serious road to make the vehicle produced the continuous vibration. Furthermore, because of need to insure the transportation security and reduce the drive speed, it not only makes the service level and efficiency of the road reduced consumedly, but also cause the vehicle excessiveness of vibrate, the fuel consumes and reduce the vehicle service life consumedly which because the road faces not roughness.
    In part of apparatus to examine, the 3m straight and Hi-Lo Detector are not only waste a lot of time but also strenuous effort. It’s also not suitable in network level by using standard deviation of roughness. Although introduce an examination instrument in recent years, still belong to very few parts of units to own, and purchased the cost high in the early years. Therefore, compare to the promotion at the home advanced of the instrument examines and internationalizes the index sign the usage up is really difficult problem.
    So this study tries to develop the intelligent vehicle for pavement survey by oneself. It can improve the problem which existed in the apparatus of survey roughness. Even carry on a series of identification procedures to this system, among them include identifications such as identification and the international roughness index sign stability etc. of various instruments of this system. The above procedure all consults the foreign related standard to take into the identification. By the above identification procedure, in addition to canning increase the credibility of this examination system, also can improve the not easily seen problem of an examination instrument results. All intelligent vehicles for pavement survey by oneself are not passing the accredited of Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation (CNLA). Although there is keep doing the related identification procedure, it still in the research development stage. So this research hopes to first step draws up the CNLA certification procedure relevant document and operates the manual...etc. to identify the procedure by many items, matching the foreign related standard. Looking forward to make the intelligent vehicle for pavement survey which developed by oneself can pass the certification permission.
    This research with originally intelligent spread to face to examine the car to collect Taoyuan County inshore ll country a data, after taking in to statisticsed the analysis, and inquire into the not flat reason of causing the road.And combine the Videologging system of the Institute of Transportation development. Take into the collections in the lieutenant general all image datas with basic roads of the examination process. With continues image perhaps by the photograph, can use the stranger or two usage situation in the side landses of the related position and road of the entire content, various facilities that protect the unit to the road's segment. Didn't need to the scene, can carry on the first step the inspection the road to follow the line condition.
    This research collects the protect data of country way of three years in Taoyuan County. And The covariance protects the area size、Protecting the summary calculates the budget、protect the way and protect to maintain cost etc. Combining an examination data carries on the country way to protect the threshold value, The result is 6.65 m/km. Apply above all data in spread to face in the pavement management system. Expect to have to promote to inshore road quality in Taoyuan County, all use the stranger and all can have to go the car environment sooner and soon and more comfortablely.
    Table of Content 總目錄…………………………………………………..I
    第一章 緒 論1
    1.1 研究背景與動機1
    1.2 研究目的與範圍2
    1.3 研究方法與內容3
    1.4 研究流程6
    第二章 文獻回顧7
    2.1 國內外平坦度評估指標7
    2.1.2國際糙度指標(International Roughness Index , IRI):8
    2.1.3騎乘指數(Ride Number, RN)(ASTM E1489-98)13
    2.1.4輪廓指數(Profile Index, PI)(ASTM E-1274)15
    2.2 鋪面平坦度檢測儀器及原理介紹17
    2.3 國內外鋪面平坦度規範及驗收標準32
    第三章 自行研發平坦度儀器驗證及認證39
    3.1 自行研發平坦度檢測儀器介紹39
    3.1.1 慣性式平坦儀檢測原理40
    3.1.2 精密測距儀41
    3.1.3 慣性參考儀器46
    3.1.4 距離量測系統(DMI)49
    3.1.5 訊號擷取系統51
    3.1.6 其他設備54
    3.1.7 小 結55
    3.2 平坦度儀器之驗證56
    3.2.4指標穩定性62 重現性驗證62 準確性驗證66 變異性驗證68
    3.2.5 小 結77
    3.3 平坦度儀器之認證78
    3.3.1 CNLA認證流程78
    3.3.2 ISO17025介紹81
    第四章 桃園縣鄉道平坦度檢測及統計分析89
    4.1 桃園縣鄉道平坦度檢測計劃89
    4.1.1 檢測教育訓練89
    4.1.2 檢測範圍90
    4.1.3 檢測進度規劃95
    4.2 桃園縣鄉道平坦度統計分析96
    4.2.1 鄉道統計分析結果96
    4.2.2 小結100
    第五章 平坦度資料應用於鋪面維護管理系統101
    5.1 鋪面維護管理系統介紹101
    5.1.1 台灣地區歷年鋪面維護系統101
    5.1.2 網際版路面管理雛形系統介紹104
    5.1.3 ArcIMS產品簡介106
    5.1.4 桃園縣鋪面維護管理系統107
    5.2 道路養護門檻值研擬及養護優選排序111
    5.2.1 桃園縣鄉道養護門檻值之研擬111
    5.2.2 平坦度指標應用於道路養護優選排序115
    5.3 養護門檻值之靈敏度分析117
    5.4 道路基本影像結合GIS系統118
    5.4.1 公路基本資料檢測系統(Videologging)118
    5.4.2 道路基本影像應用於鋪面維護管理系統120
    第六章 結論與建議123
    6.1 結 論123
    6.2 建 議124
    附  錄…………………………………………….130
    圖 目 錄
    圖1-1 研究流程圖6
    圖2-1 黃金車模型10
    圖2-2 IRI波譜分布10
    圖2-3 柔性鋪面國際糙度指標評估圖11
    圖2-4 RN四分車濾波器波數反應圖15
    圖2-5 三米直規量測示意圖19
    圖2-6 直規型高低平坦儀19
    圖2-7 加州平坦儀20
    圖2-8 Rainhart路面平坦儀20
    圖2-9 ARRB Walking Profiler行走式平坦儀21
    圖2-10 裝載Mays Meter車子示意圖22
    圖2-11 BPR平坦儀22
    圖2-12 ARRB MLP26
    圖2-13 瑞典VTI道安智慧車Laser RST26
    圖2-14 ARAN道安自動道路檢測車27
    圖2-15 Dynatest RSP28
    圖2-16 K.J. LAW 8300A28
    圖2-17 中大自行研發智慧型鋪面檢測車29
    圖2-18 IRI與路面狀況與車速之關係37
    圖3-1 檢測系統架構圖41
    圖3-2 SLS 5150雷射測距儀示意圖42
    圖3-3 雷射與超音波測距形式示意圖44
    圖3-4 雷射擺設方向與車輛行駛方向示意圖45
    圖3-5 應變式加速度規47
    圖3-6 壓電式加速度規49
    圖3-7 DMI距離量測系統50
    圖3-8 擷取卡與訊號擷取盒51
    圖3-9 道路檢測程式畫面52
    圖3-10 IRI分析程式畫面53
    圖3-11 RoadRuf分析程式畫面53
    圖3-12 鋁擠架54
    圖3-13 不斷電穩壓系統(UPS)54
    圖3-14 Rack4積分盒58
    圖3-15 慣性參考儀器驗證結果59
    圖3-16 距離量測系統管制圖62
    圖3-17 雷射高程資料折線圖(3次)63
    圖3-18 加速度規高程資料折線圖(3次)63
    圖3-19 中大路水準測量縱斷面剖面圖66
    圖3-20 國際糙度指標量測結果之管制界限圖67
    圖3-21 20公里與80公里高程比較圖72
    圖3-22 40公里~80公里之IRI比較圖73
    圖3-23 雷射接收面與行駛方向平行示意圖75
    圖3-24 雷射接收面與行駛方向垂直示意圖75
    圖3-25 速度不同之IRI值比較圖(擺設方向錯誤)76
    圖3-26 CNLA認證程序流程圖79
    圖3-27 CNLA初次認證程序流程圖80
    圖3-28 品質系統架構圖82
    圖4-1 平坦度檢測車教育訓練流程圖90
    圖4-2 檢測範圍示意圖90
    圖4-3 桃園縣鄉道平坦度分布柱狀圖97
    圖4-4 桃園縣鄉道平坦度分布圓餅圖97
    圖4-5 養護路段之國際糙度指標統計分析圖99
    圖4-6 未養護路段之國際糙度指標統計分析圖99
    圖5-1 台灣地區歷年鋪面維護系統圖103
    圖5-2 網際鋪面維護管理暨地理資訊系統架構108
    圖5-3 鄉道平坦度累績百分比圖115
    圖5-4 公路基本資料管理系統架構圖119
    圖5-5 DV架設與拍攝位置120
    圖5-6 路基路面播放程式120
    圖5-7 道路基本影像結合GIS系統121

    表 目 錄
    表2-1 平坦度標準差d2係數表8
    表2-2 乘騎指數(RN)所代表的路面服務水準14
    表2-3 計算IRI與RN所使用之四分車參數表14
    表2-4 國內現有平坦度量測設備18
    表2-5 慣性式平坦儀種類表25
    表2-6 各式平坦儀比較結果表30
    表2-7 各式平坦儀特性整理表31
    表2-8 市區道路原始平坦度IRI值大於650cm/km時之驗收評估標準35
    表2-9 市區道路新工或原始平坦度IRI值不大於650cm/km時之驗收評估標準35
    表3-1 智慧型檢測車購置成本與規格比較表40
    表3-2 LMI雷射測距儀規格表42
    表3-3 ASTM E 950-98規定慣性式平坦度儀等級與取樣間距43
    表3-4 不同行車速度下,滿足ASTM E 950-98所需取樣頻率換算表43
    表3-5 ASTM E 950-98規定慣性式平坦度儀等級與縱向解析度44
    表3-6 DMI規格表50
    表3-7 雷射測距儀驗證結果57
    表3-8 距離量測系統驗證結果60
    表3-9 距離量測結果之單因子變異數分析61
    表3-10 重覆性平坦度IRI量測結果63
    表3-11 M.Y.Shahin方式(IRI)之單因子變異數分析表64
    表3-12 RoadRuf方式(IRI)之單因子變異數分析表64
    表3-13 M.Y.Shahin與RoadRuf之IRI單因子變異數分析表64
    表3-14 自行研發平坦儀與水準測量之IRI比較表67
    表3-15 不同速度平坦度檢測結果68
    表3-16 20~80公里(IRI)單因子變異數分析表68
    表3-17 30~80公里(IRI)單因子變異數分析表69
    表3-18 40~80公里(IRI)單因子變異數分析表70
    表3-19 40KM以下量測結果表71
    表3-20 35~40公里(IRI)單因子變異數分析表71
    表3-21 不同煞車速度平坦度檢測結果73
    表3-22 煞車次數之單因子變異數分析表74
    表4-1 檢測路線表91
    表4-2 檢測規劃行程表95
    表4-3 桃園縣鄉道國際糙度指標統計表96
    表4-4 91~93年度桃園縣鄉道養護資料表98
    表5-1 國內發展之鋪面維護管理系統102
    表5-2 桃園縣鄉道養護資料整理表114
    表5-3 各文獻之養護排序評估屬性使用次數統計表117
    表5-4 桃園縣鄉道平坦度靈敏度分析結果118
    Reference 1.M.S.Janoff, J.B.Nick, andP.s.Davit Ketron, “Pavement Roughness and Rideability.”, NCHRP Report275, TRB, 1985.
    2.“Public Roads.”, FHWA, U.S. Department of Transportation, Sep.-Oct., 2002.
    5.Sayers, M.W., Gillespie, T.D., and C.A.V. Queiroz “The International Road Roughness Experiment: A Basis for Establishing a Standard Scale for Road Roughness Measurements”Transportation Research Record 1084, (1986)。
    6.“Standard Practice for Computing International Roughness Index of Roads from Longitudinal Profile Measurements” ASTM E-1926,1998。
    7.“Standard Practices for Simulating Vehicular Response to Longitudinal Profiles of Traveled Surfaces”ASTM E-1170,2001。
    9.Gillespie, T.D., Sayers, M.W., and L. Segel “Calibration of Response-Type Road Roughness Measuring Systems ”National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 228, 1980。
    10.Sayers, M.W. and S. M. Karamihas “The Little Book of Profiling”University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 1997。
    11.Sayers, M.W., Gillespie, T.D., and C.A.V. Queiroz “The International Road Roughness Experiment” World Bank Technical Paper Number 45, 1986。
    12.Sayers, M.W., Gillespie, T.D., and W.D.O. Paterson “Guidelines for Conducting and Calibrating Road Roughness Measurements”World Bank Technical Paper Number 46, 1986。
    13.M.Y.Shahin “Pavement Management For Airports,Roads,and Parking Lots”。
    14.“Standard Practice for Computing Ride Number of Roads from Longitudinal Profile Measurements Made by an Inertial Profile Measuring Device”ASTM E-1489,1998。
    15.“Standard Test Method for Measuring Pavement Roughness Using a Profilograph”ASTM E-1274,1993。
    20.http://www.arrb.com.au/ ,ARRB網站。
    23.http://www.dynatest.com/ ,Dynatest公司網站。
    29.Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 「Standard Specifications for Construction of Roads and Bridges on Federal Highway Projects.」, 1985。
    30.“Standard Test Method for Measuring the Longitudinal Profile of Traveled Surfaces with an Accelerometer Established Inertial Profiling Reference”ASTM E-950,1998。
    31.http://www.umtri.umich.edu/erd/roughness/ , Road Roughness Home Page.
    32.R. W. Perera .,S. D. Kohn,“Issues in Pavement Smoothness: A Summary Report” NCHRP Web Document 42。
    33.日本道路協會,「瀝青鋪裝要綱」,東京,p.112-113,176-178, 1987。
    37.http://www.esri.com/ ,ESRI Home Page。
  • Jyh-Dong Lin(林志棟)
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    Date of Submission 2005-07-14

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