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Student Number 92223029
Author Teng-Kai Yang(楊登凱)
Author's Email Address No Public.
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 3355 times. Download 3110 times.
Department Chemistry
Year 2004
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title 以氣相層析質譜儀檢測具荷爾蒙效應添加劑之方法開發與研究
Date of Defense 2005-06-10
Page Count 87
Keyword
  • alkylphenol compounds
  • brominated flame retardants
  • endocrine-disrupting
  • GC/MS
  • solid-phase extraction
  • steam distillation extraction
  • Abstract The chemical additives are needed for the plastic products manufacturing and takes shape, to improve their performance of quality, characteristics, stability, and workability. Tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite (TNPP) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are two common chemical additives with large and global industrial use. The presence of endocrine-disrupting residues in the environment or food has raised increasing concern about their impact on wildlife and human health. This research is to develop stable methods to determine alkylphenol compounds in fresh fruits and vegetables, and two common used BFRs in river water samples.
    The first study describes a simple and sensitive method for determining the 4-tert.-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-nonylphenol isomers (4-NPs), and their monoethoxylates (4-t-OP1EO and 4-NP1EOs), in fresh fruits and vegetables. The method involves extracting a sample by a modified Nielson-Kryger steam distillation extraction using n-hexane for one hour. The alkylphenolic compounds were identified and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The quantitation limit of this method was less than 0.2 ng/g in 10 g (fresh weight) of sample. Recovery of these compounds in spiked samples exceeded 64% while RSD ranged from 1.0 to 9.8%. Alkylphenolic residues were detected in fresh fruits and vegetables at concentrations of 4-NPs and 4-t-OP from n.d. to 16 ng/g and from n.d. to 4.8 ng/g (fresh weight), respectively. NP1EO and OP1EO were always below the quantitation limit.
    Another study presents a modified method to analyze two common BFRs, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in water samples. The newly developed Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge provides the optimal sample extraction results. The analytes were then identified and quantitatively determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The limits of quantitation of these compounds were less than 20 ng/L in 250 mL water sample. Recovery of these two BFRs in spiked samples exceeded 79% while RSD ranged from 3.6 to 14%. BFRs were detected in water samples at concentrations of HBCD from 73 to 581 ng/L. TBBPA was below the quantitation limit.
    Table of Content 目錄
    中文摘要------------------------------------------------------------------ Ⅰ
    英文摘要------------------------------------------------------------------ Ⅲ
    目錄---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅴ
    表目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------- Ⅸ
    圖目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------- XI
    第一章 前言---------------------------------------------------------------- 1
    1-1研究緣起---------------------------------------------------------- 1
    1-2研究目標---------------------------------------------------------- 11
    第二章 文獻探討------------------------------------------------------------ 13
     2-1 塑膠添加劑----------------------------------------------------------- 13
       2-1-1 塑膠抗氧化劑------------------------------------------------ 14
       2-1-2 塑膠耐燃劑--------------------------------------------------- 15
     2-2 內分泌干擾物質----------------------------------------------------- 16
       2-2-1內分泌干擾物質之簡介------------------------------------- 16
       2-2-2 烷基酚類化合物之荷爾蒙效應及毒性------------------ 20
       2-2-3 溴化耐燃劑之荷爾蒙效應及毒性------------------------ 21
     2-3 國內外相關研究----------------------------------------------------- 22
       2-3-1烷基酚類化合物之相關文獻-------------------------------- 22
       2-3-2 溴化耐燃劑之相關文獻------------------------------------- 26
     2-4 蒸氣蒸餾萃取法----------------------------------------------------- 29
     2-5 固相萃取法----------------------------------------------------------- 31
     2-6 氣相層析質譜儀----------------------------------------------------- 34
       2-6-1 四極矩質譜儀----------------------------------------------- 34
       2-6-2 選擇離子偵測法-------------------------------------------- 35
    第三章 實驗步驟與樣品分析--------------------------------------------- 37
     3-1 實驗藥品與儀器設備----------------------------------------------- 37
       3-1-1 實驗藥品------------------------------------------------------ 37
       3-1-2 儀器設備------------------------------------------------------ 39
     3-2 實驗步驟------------------------------------------------------------ 40
       3-2-1 烷基酚類化合物之分析------------------------------------ 40
         3-2-1-1 標準品製備-------------------------------------------- 40
         3-2-1-2 氣相層析質譜儀參數設定-------------------------- 41
         3-2-1-3 蔬果樣品之蒸汽蒸餾萃取步驟-------------------- 43
         3-2-1-4 蔬果樣品之蒸氣蒸餾萃取回收率實驗----------- 43
         3-2-1-5 塑膠樣品溶出測試之固相萃取步驟-------------- 44
        3-2-2 溴化耐燃劑之分析---------------------------------------- 45
    3-2-2-1 標準品製備------------------------------------------ 45
         3-2-2-2 氣相層析質譜儀參數設定------------------------ 45
    3-2-2-3 真實水樣固相萃取步驟--------------------------- 47
    3-2-2-4 真實水樣之固相萃取回收率實驗--------------- 47
    第四章 結果與討論--------------------------------------------------------- 48
    4-1 烷基酚類化合物----------------------------------------------------- 48
       4-1-1 烷基酚類化合物之測定------------------------------------ 48
       4-1-2 檢量線--------------------------------------------------------- 50
       4-1-3 蒸氣蒸餾萃取前處理法最佳條件探討------------------ 51
       4-1-4 蒸氣蒸餾萃取前處理方法探討--------------------------- 53
       4-1-5 市售新鮮蔬果的烷基酚類化合物分析結果------------ 54
       4-1-6 市售不同包裝果菜汁的烷基酚類化合物殘留比較--- 58
       4-1-7 市售不同材料之塑膠包裝容器的烷基酚類化合物溶出實驗------------ 59
       4-1-8 我國與德國檢測結果比較--------------------------------- 61
     
    4-2 溴化耐燃劑----------------------------------------------------------- 62
       4-2-1溴化耐燃劑之測定------------------------------------------ 62
       4-2-2 檢量線-------------------------------------------------------- 65
       4-2-3 找尋最適合的固相萃取管柱------------------------------ 65
       4-2-4 固相萃取前處理方法探討--------------------------------- 68
       4-2-5 台灣河流中的溴化耐燃劑分析結果--------------------- 68
    第五章 結果與建議--------------------------------------------------------- 73
     5-1 結論---------------------------------------------------------------- 73
     5-2 建議--------------------------------------------------------- 74
    第六章 參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------ 75
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  • Wang-Hsien Ding(丁望賢)
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    Date of Submission 2005-06-20

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