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Student Number 91624008
Author Pei-Fu Wang(王沛夫)
Author's Email Address No Public.
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Department Graduate Institute of Applied Geology
Year 2003
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title Stress Magnitude in Different Tectonic Regime as Inferred from World Stress Measurement Data
Date of Defense 2004-06-30
Page Count 116
Keyword
  • constraint model
  • crustal stress
  • fault gouge
  • fault strength
  • focal mechanism
  • in-situ
  • in-situ stress
  • montmorillonite
  • shear strength
  • stress constraint
  • stress constraint model
  • stress model
  • tectonic regime
  • tectonic stress
  • world stress measurement
  • Abstract The stress field of earth crust changes in response to tectonic compression
    and extension and results in deformation and various kinds of faulting. If we
    assume that the earth crust would reach a limit equilibrium state before faults
    start to failure, a stress constrain model could be found by adopting a proper fault
    strength model. Worldwide in-situ stress measurement data were collected and
    used for validating different stress constraint model and for studying the stress
    characteristics of different stress regime.
    A zoning of stress regime were constructed according to the neotectonic
    fault type, tectonics and structure characteristics, and focal mechanism data
    collected by this study. We divided the earth crust into three kinds of tectonic
    stress regimes: compressional regime, extensional regime and stable area. The
    characteristics of in-situ stress in a stress regime were studied and the application
    of different stress constraint model were discussed.
    Results show that the stress constraint model based on an undrained shear
    strength of montmorillonite fits better with the in-situ stress measurement data.
    These shallow-depth stress data are affected by residual stresses and other effects
    and are more scattered, but most values are still within the stress constrain model
    given by Byerlee’s friction law. Those stress measurement data collected from
    deeper depth fits better with the stress constraint model constructed by the strength
    of montmorillonite.
    The ratio of the maximum horizontal stress to vertical stress K1 usually
    ranged from 1.4 to 2.2 in compression regime and the ratio of the minimum
    horizontal stress to vertical stress K2 usually ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 in extension
    regime. In stable regime, K1 is usually below 1.4, and K2 is usually over 0.7.
    Table of Content 目  錄 頁數
    中文摘要Ⅰ
    英文摘要Ⅱ
    誌謝Ⅲ
    目錄Ⅳ
    圖目Ⅷ
    表目Ⅹ
    第一章緒論1
    1.1 研究動機與目的1
    1.2 研究內容簡介1
    第二章地應力及其文獻回顧2
    2.1 地應力量測方法2
    2.1.1 水力破裂法2
    2.1.2 套鑽法5
    2.2 地應力相關文獻回顧8
    2.2.1 地應力相關研究8
    2.2.2 斷層剪力強度相關研究10
    2.2.3 應力極限模型相關研究12
    第三章研究方法及步驟13
    3.1 資料蒐集13
    3.1.1 世界地震震源機制資料蒐集13
    3.1.2 世界地應力資料蒐集16
    3.1.3 地質相關資料蒐集16
    3.2 資料處理19
    3.2.1 地震資料分類19
    3.2.2 地應力資料處理21
    3.2.3 理論垂直應力的給予25
    3.2.4 應力資料分級26
    3.3 地體構造應力區劃分29
    3.4 應力極限模型的建構29
    3.5 地應力資料與應力極限模型之比較36
    第四章資料分析及結果37
    4.1 壓縮應力區37
    4.1.1 日本地區37
    4.1.2 東亞地區40
    4.1.3 美國東部地區40
    4.1.4 美國西部地區43
    4.1.5 壓縮區結果43
    4.2 伸張應力區46
    4.2.1 冰島46
    4.2.2 南非地區46
    4.2.3 美國中西部地區48
    4.2.4 伸張區結果48
    4.3 穩定區48
    4.3.1 北美洲中北部地區52
    4.3.2 歐洲地區52
    4.3.3 澳洲地區54
    4.3.4 穩定區結果54
    4.4 其他地區54
    4.5 研究結果57
    第五章討論61
    5.1 資料處理61
    5.2 資料品質61
    5.3 應力分區62
    5.4 成果解釋63
    5.4.1 殘餘應力63
    5.4.2 局部地形效應64
    5.4.3 區域構造擾動64
    5.4.4 不連續面的影響65
    5.4.5 不均勻材料所引致的結構應力65
    5.5 應力極限模型65
    5.5.1 蒙脫土的物性65
    5.5.2 與其他極限模型比較66
    第六章結論與建議68
    6.1 結論68
    6.2 建議69
    參考文獻70
    附錄一 本研究挑選之World Stress Map地應力資料89
    附錄二 文獻蒐集之地應力資料94

    圖  目 頁數
    圖2.1水力破裂法試驗設備示意圖4
    圖2.2水力破裂試驗壓力與時間記錄圖4
    圖2.3裂縫拓印設備示意圖6
    圖2.4裂縫拓印結果圖6
    圖2.5使用套鑽法量測現地應力之步驟圖7
    圖2.6(a)平均水平應力與垂直應力之比值Kavg對應深度之分布圖9
       (b)現地量測之垂直方向應力對應距地表深度之分布圖9
    圖3.1本研究之研究流程圖14
    圖3.2本研究蒐集之1908年至2004年地震資料分布圖15
    圖3.3WSM 2003年世界應力分布圖17
    圖3.4本研究蒐集之地應力資料分布圖18
    圖3.5構成大陸的三種構造單元分布圖20
    圖3.6各種類型的斷層滑動示意圖22
    圖3.7本研究蒐集的震源機制分類後之資料分布圖23
    圖3.8本研究之地體構造應力分區與應力資料分布圖30
    圖3.9完整岩石、岩石界面、黏土礦物等之尖峰剪力強度示意圖32
    圖3.10Rakine主動與被動土壓力概念之示意圖33
    圖3.11蒙脫土應力極限模型圖35
    圖4.1地體構造應力分區及各代表區域位置圖38
    圖4.2日本地區大地應力狀態39
    圖4.3日本地區現地應力K值的分布39
    圖4.4東亞地區大地應力狀態41
    圖4.5東亞地區現地應力K值的分布42
    圖4.6美國東部地區大地應力狀態44
    圖4.7美國東部地區現地應力K值的分布44
    圖4.8美國西部地區大地應力狀態45
    圖4.9美國西部地區現地應力K值的分布45
    圖4.10冰島地區大地應力狀態47
    圖4.11冰島地區現地應力K值的分布47
    圖4.12南非地區大地應力狀態49
    圖4.13南非地區現地應力K值的分布50
    圖4.14美國中西部地區大地應力狀態51
    圖4.15美國中西部地區現地應力K值的分布51
    圖4.16北美洲中北部地區大地應力狀態53
    圖4.17北美洲中北部地區現地應力K值的分布53
    圖4.18歐洲地區大地應力狀態55
    圖4.19歐洲地區現地應力K值的分布55
    圖4.20澳洲地區大地應力狀態56
    圖4.21澳洲地區現地應力K值的分布56
    圖4.22壓縮區現地應力K值的分布58
    圖4.23伸張區現地應力K值的分布58
    圖4.24穩定區現地應力K值的分布59

    表  目 頁數
    表3.1震源機制解之分類依據21
    表3.2理論垂直應力之密度給予範圍26
    表3.3WSM所定義現地應力資料等級27
    表3.4本研究地應力資料的分級28
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