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Student Number 91622020
Author Chia-Yan Ku(古佳艷)
Author's Email Address jo@oc.gep.ncu.edu.tw
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 2254 times. Download 1504 times.
Department Graduate Institute of Geophysics
Year 2003
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title 台灣至呂宋島間馬尼拉海溝的震測研究:
從正常隱沒到初期碰撞抬昇的上部地殼構造
Date of Defense 2004-06-24
Page Count 73
Keyword
  • Luzon
  • Manila Trench
  • multichannal seismic
  • proto-thrust zone
  • South China Sea
  • subduction zone
  • Taiwan
  • Abstract 南海海洋岩石圈沿馬尼拉海溝(Manila Trench)向東隱沒到菲律賓海板塊之下,此馬尼拉隱沒系統在20°N以南顯示單純的板塊隱沒作用,但在20°N以北則逐漸與歐亞大陸邊緣斜向聚合,更往北則形成了複雜的台灣造山帶。過去研究台灣至呂宋島間的馬尼拉隱沒系統之資料多集中在20°N以北,此區域構造實際上大多已經受到台灣造山運動的影響而變形。為了瞭解台灣至呂宋島之間馬尼拉隱沒系統的正常隱沒到初期碰撞的上部地殼構造特性,本研究利用2003年7月和9月在18.5°N 到20.5°N所蒐集的六條反射震測剖面,進行震測資料處理、震測層序分析和震測解釋。
    研究發現最南端的震測剖面清楚呈現單純的板塊隱沒過程,隱沒基盤與上覆的沈積物均朝島弧方向傾斜,海溝處則覆蓋著2秒雙程走時厚的沈積物。而在研究區最北端的剖面中海溝的前半段仍可看到沈積層向下隱沒的樣貌,但到了海溝的後半段則開始有明顯密集的逆衝斷層,這些逆衝斷層皆出露於海床面,沈積物被擠壓往上抬昇。海溝沈積物(trench-fill sediments)的沈積量在本研究區段中由南往北遞減,顯示隱沒作用由南往北逐漸減弱,而碰撞聚合作用活躍地由南往北逐漸增強。
    依照板塊隱沒而產生的地殼變形特性,我們將海溝附近分成正斷層區(Normal fault zone)與原逆衝斷層區(Proto-thrust zone),這兩個區域沿著海溝分佈。正斷層區為海溝中靠海盆方向的密集正斷層分佈區域,可能是隱沒板塊向下彎曲使得上部岩層受到伸張力量而產生。原逆衝斷層區緊接著正斷層區,為往海盆方向第一個盲逆衝斷層至逆衝斷層前緣(frontal thrust)間的區域,該區已經受到擠壓作用而產生盲逆衝斷層,盲逆衝斷層可能循原正斷層位置產生反轉構造,這些盲逆衝斷層極有可能在未來受更大的擠壓力量下而出露於海床。另外,本區存在的滑脫面(décollement)位置可能循層序邊界t4或t5產生,但是因為在海溝區域的擠壓作用尚未很劇烈且有正斷層的分佈,因此並沒有觀察到清楚的滑脫面存在。
    Table of Content 摘?n………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
    誌?癒K……………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
    目??K……………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
    圖?堙K……………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
    表?堙K……………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
    第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………1
    1.1 研究動機與目的……………………………………………………1
    1.2 地體構造背景………………………………………………………4
    1.2.1 馬尼拉隱沒系統南段(20°N以南)………………………4
    1.2.2 馬尼拉隱沒系統北段(20°N以北)………………………8
    第二章 震測資料蒐集………………………………………………………13
    2.1 海上震測系統工作原理……………………………………………13
    2.2 震測系統設備與施放操作…………………………………………15
    2.3 震測系統參數設定…………………………………………………16
    2.4 重合數計算…………………………………………………………17
    2.5 資料蒐集檢視步驟…………………………………………………19
    2.5.1 資料轉錄……………………………………………………19
    2.5.2 檢視炸點記錄檔……………………………………………19
    第三章 震測資料處理及測試………………………………………………20
    3.1 SEG-Y資料輸入……………………………………………………20
    3.2 近支距炸點展示(Near-offset Trace Display)……………………20
    3.3 炸點集合展示(Shot-gather Display)……………………………21
    3.4 幾何定位(Geometry)……………………………………………21
    3.5 資料修正(Data Reduction)……………………………………….21
    3.6 帶通濾波(Band-Pass Filter)………………………………………22
    3.7 真實振幅還原(True Amplitude Recovery)………………………23
    3.8 解迴旋(Deconvolution)…………………………………………..25
    3.9 垂直隔距時差修正(Normal Moveout)…………………………29
    3.10 重合(Stack)………………………………………………………31
    3.11 移位(Migration)…………………………………………………31
    3.12 自動增益控制(Auto-Gain Control)………………………………31
    第四章 震測剖面分析與解釋………………………………………………33
    4.1 名詞定義……………………………………………………………33
    4.2 震測剖面的特徵分析………………………………………………35
    4.2.1 海盆及海溝區的震測層序特徵……………………………38
    4.2.2 火山干擾區的震測層序特徵………………………………38
    4.3 震測剖面解釋………………………………………………………41
    4.3.1 整條剖面的震測解釋………………………………………41
    4.3.2 海溝區內的震測解釋………………………………………43
    第五章 討論…………………………………………………………………58
    5.1正斷層區與原逆衝斷層區在空間上的分佈及意義………58
        5.1.1 研究區內(18.5°N至20.5°N)……………………………58
        5.1.2 與台灣西部麓山帶的構造比較……………………………59
    5.2 滑脫面存在否?………………………………………………63
    第六章 結論…………………………………………………………………68
    參考文獻……………………………………………………………………70
    圖 目
    圖1-1 乒乓球理論示意圖…………………………………………………...2
    圖1-2 台灣附近水深圖……………………………………………………...3
    圖1-3 馬尼拉隱沒帶附近水深圖…………………………………………...5
    圖1-4 馬尼拉隱沒帶附近自由空間重力異常圖…………………………...7
    圖1-5 九連號TAIJUNT航次測線分佈圖…………………………………10
    圖1-6 台灣西南海域構造分佈圖…………………………………………..11
    圖1-7 台灣至呂宋島間震源參數反演的震源機制解…………………….12
    圖2-1 研究區域海底地形及測線分佈圖………………………………….14
    圖2-2 海上震測工作原理示意圖………………………………………….15
    圖2-3 求解近支距示意圖………………………………………………….16
    圖2-4 本研究震測系統參數設定示意圖………………………………….17
    圖2-5 每一個同深點最大重合數為6的示意圖………………………….18
    圖3-1 各種濾波效果測試圖……………………………………………….24
    圖3-2 真實振幅還原(TAR)測試圖……………………………..……….26
    圖3-3 計算解迴旋運算子長度(DOL)之自對比(Autocorrelation)
        示意圖....................................……………………………………….27
    圖3-4 計算解迴旋濾波器預測距離(ODP)之自對比示意圖……….….28
    圖3-5 解迴旋測試圖……………………………………………………….30
    圖3-6 本研究的震測資料處理流程圖…………………………………….32
    圖4-1 研究區內主要相關構造示意圖…………………………………….33
    圖4-2 震測剖面重新編號示意圖………………………………………….36
    圖4-3 震測剖面AA’(測線MCS693-6)…………………………………..45
    圖4-4 震測剖面BB’(測線MCS693-4)…………………………………..46
    圖4-5 震測剖面CC’(測線MCS693-3)…………………………………..47
    圖4-6 震測剖面DD’(測線MCS693-1)…………………………………..48
    圖4-7 震測剖面EE’(測線MCS689-3a)………………………………… 49
    圖4-8 震測剖面FF’(測線MCS689-4)…………………………………...50
    圖4-9 震測剖面aa’(測線MCS693-6的海溝放大)………………………51
    圖4-10 震測剖面bb’(測線MCS693-4的海溝放大)………………………52
    圖4-11 震測剖面cc’(測線MCS693-3的海溝放大)………………………53
    圖4-12 震測剖面dd’(測線MCS693-1的海溝放大)………………………54
    圖4-13 震測剖面ee’(測線MCS689-3a的海溝放大)..……………………55
    圖4-14 震測剖面ff’(測線MCS689-4的海溝放大)………………………56
    圖4-15 六條震測線的海溝沈積物分佈圖………......……………......….....57
    圖5-1 正斷層區(NFZ)與原逆衝斷層區(PTZ)分佈情形……………60
    圖5-2 台灣中部地質圖…………………………………………………….61
    圖5-3 台灣中部的地質剖面AA’…………………………………………..61
    圖5-4 台灣中部的地質剖面BB’…………………………………………..61
    圖5-5 台灣中南部地區之地質構造分佈圖……………………………….62
    圖5-6 Hayes and Lewis研究馬尼拉海溝的震測剖面分佈圖……………64
    圖5-7 馬尼拉海溝中段震測剖面CC’…………………………………….65
    圖5-8 馬尼拉海溝中段震測剖面EE’……………………………………..66
    圖5-9 南海海溝的震測剖面圖…………………………………………….67
    (※註:紙本論文中含有大張震測剖面圖)
    表 目
    表2-1 本研究所使用六條測線的近支距與遠支距參數表……...………. 18
    表3-1 ORI689及ORI693航次震測資料解迴旋步驟輸入的參數………28
    表4-1 研究區域內的沈積層序與震測層序邊界表……………………….37
    表4-2 海盆及海溝區中震測層序與層序邊界的震測相特徵圖示表……39
    表4-3 火山干擾區的震測層序邊界及其震測相特徵圖示表……………40
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  • Shu-Kun Hsu(許樹坤)
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    Date of Submission 2004-07-16

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