Title page for 91542601


[Back to Results | New Search]

Student Number 91542601
Author Prasan Kumar(®FģwļŅ)
Author's Email Address sahoo@axp1.csie.ncu.edu.tw
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 1356 times. Download 827 times.
Department Computer Science and Information Engineering
Year 2008
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document Doctoral Dissertation
Language English
Title Modeling and Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks
Date of Defense 2009-06-26
Page Count 158
Keyword
  • IEEE 802.15.4
  • Wireless sensor networks
  • Abstract Wireless sensor network (WSN) is envisioned for a wide range of applications ranging
    from environmental surveillance, inventory tracking, health monitoring, home au-
    tomation to networking in or around a human body. Much of the development in
    recent years has focused on new sensor node hardware, integration of sensing and
    radio circuitry as well as design of suitable networking protocols to meet the require-
    ments of low cost and low power operation. Despite above advances in both sensor
    hardware and development of suitable sensor networking protocols, lack of a suitable
    WSN standard and associated commercial product has slowed the maturation pro-
    cess of this technology. The situation is expected to change with the release of the
    IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless MAC and PHY speci°¬cations for low-rate, low-power wireless
    personal area networks (WPANs) due to signi°¬cant interest from companies that are
    already beginning to ship products based on this standard.
    Performance analysis of wireless sensor networks in terms of data transmission
    capacity and lifetime of the networks are critical research issues towards the design of
    optimal deployment strategies of the sensor networks. In contrast to other types of
    wireless networks, nodes in wireless sensor networks are densely deployed and organize
    themselves in an ad hoc fashion. Due to limited transmission ranges, any two nodes
    cannot reach each other directly and rely on other sensor nodes to relay data between
    them. Hence, the data packets between the source and destination are routed through
    multi-hops. Besides, sensor nodes are normally small in size and have constrained
    energy sources. Hence energy consumption analysis is an important performance
    measure in wireless sensor networks. Since, IEEE 802.15.4 standard de°¬nes medium access control protocol for the devices using low data rate, low power and short-range
    transmissions, modeling and performance analysis of its MAC for the wireless sensor
    network is worth to study.
    In this thesis, the contention free and contention based channel access mechanism
    in wireless sensor networks is discussed. Considering di®erent MAC mechanisms in
    wireless sensor networks, mathematical models for the energy consumption issues are
    analyzed. A hybrid channel access mechanism is proposed for the wireless sensor net-
    work that considers the channel access procedure of IEEE 802.15.4 and combines the
    binary exponential backo® mechanism of IEEE 802.11. Taking the backlogged nodes
    due to collision after successful channel assessment, extended linear feedback model
    and discrete time Markov chain model are designed to analyze the successful and
    failure probabilities of the system model of the wireless sensor network. Besides, en-
    ergy consumption model for the star topology of wireless sensor network is developed
    based on the hybrid channel access mechanism.
    Besides, analytical models for the beacon-enabled slotted CSMA-CA mechanism
    of IEEE 802.15.4 is designed for the star topology of wireless sensor network taking
    acknowledged transmissions. The current mechanism of IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA-CA
    is extended to include the retransmission limit of the nodes with packet collision
    probability. A three-dimensional Markov chain model for the uplink tra°”c of IEEE
    802.15.4 wireless sensor network is developed to analyze the energy consumption and
    throughput of the nodes under unsaturated tra°”c conditions. Extensive performance
    analysis are made to analyze energy consumption and throughput of the system mod-
    els and to study the impact of di®erent network and tra°”c parameters such as the
    packet arrival rate, packet size, node numbers and data rates. The e®ect of binary
    exponential contention window on energy consumption of the nodes is veri°¬ed for the
    wireless sensor networks. The comparison with comprehensive simulations and vali-
    dations of our analytical models shows that the proposed analytical frameworks are
    totally correct and provides accurate performance predictions for energy consumption
    and throughput analysis.
    Table of Content Abstract ii
    Acknowledgements v
    List of Tables viii
    List of Figures ix
    1 Introduction 1
    1.1 Wireless Sensor Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
    1.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
    1.2.1 Home Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
    1.2.2 Indoor Parking Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
    1.2.3 Warehouse Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
    1.3 Motivations and Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
    1.4 Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
    1.5 Organization of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
    2 Preliminary 12
    vii
    2.1 Wireless Medium Access Control Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    2.1.1 Contention Free MAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
    2.1.1.1 Random Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
    2.1.1.2 Scheduled-based Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
    2.1.2 Contention based MAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
    2.1.2.1 Reservation based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
    2.1.2.2 Scheduling based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
    2.2 MAC Protocols for WSNs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
    2.3 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
    3 Channel Access Mechanisms in Wireless Networks 34
    3.1 Wireless Access Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
    3.1.1 IEEE 802.11 Speci°¬cations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
    3.1.2 IEEE 802.15.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
    3.1.3 IEEE 802.15.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
    3.1.4 IEEE 802.15.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
    3.1.5 IEEE 802.15.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
    3.1.5.1 Components of IEEE 802.15.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
    3.1.5.2 Network Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
    3.1.5.3 Data transfer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
    3.1.5.4 Superframe Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
    3.2 Comparisons of Channel Access Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
    3.2.1 IEEE 802.11 MAC Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
    3.2.2 IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
    viii
    4 Performance Analysis of MAC with Hybrid Channel Access Mech-
    anism 62
    4.1 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
    4.1.1 Hybrid CSMA-CA Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
    4.2 Analytical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
    4.2.1 Extended Linear Feedback Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
    4.2.2 Discrete-Time Markov Chain Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
    4.3 Energy Consumption Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
    4.3.1 Packet Retransmission Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
    4.3.2 Energy Consumption Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
    4.4 Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
    4.4.1 Simulation Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
    4.4.2 Model Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
    4.4.3 E®ective Energy Consumption Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
    4.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
    5 Performance Analysis of MAC with Packet Retransmission Limits 95
    5.1 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
    5.1.1 Retransmission based CSMA-CA Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . 97
    5.2 Analytical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
    5.2.1 The Markov Chain Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
    5.2.2 Packet Collision Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
    5.2.3 Channel Assess Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
    5.2.4 Packet Transmission Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
    ix
    5.2.5 Conditional Channel Access Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
    5.2.6 Steady State Probabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
    5.3 Throughput and Energy Consumption Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
    5.3.1 Throughput Analysis Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
    5.3.2 Energy Consumption Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
    5.4 Performance Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
    5.4.1 Simulation Setups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
    5.4.2 Model Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
    5.4.2.1 E®ect of NRT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
    5.4.3 Throughput and Energy Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
    5.4.3.1 High Data Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
    5.4.3.2 Low Data Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
    5.4.3.3 E®ect of Node Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
    5.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
    6 Conclusions and Future Work 125
    6.1 Major Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
    6.2 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
    Bibliography 130
    x
    Reference [1] N. Abramson, "The Aloha System Another Alternative for Computer Commu-
    nications", in Proc. of Joint Computer Conference, Vol 37, pp. 281285, 1970.
    [2] N. Abramson, "Development of the ALOHANET", IEEE Transactions on In-
    formation Theory, Vol 31, Issue 2, pp. 119-123, 1985.
    [3] M. H. Ammar and D. S. Stevens, "A distributed TDMA rescheduling procedure
    for mobile packet radio networks", in Proc. of IEEE ICC, Denver, pp. 1609-1613,
    June, 1991.
    [4] L. Angrisanil, M. Bertocco, D. Fortin and A. Sona, "Assessing coexistence prob-
    lems of IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks through cross-layer
    measurements", in Proc. of IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology
    Conference, May, 2007.
    [5] K. Arisha, M. Youssef, and M. Younis, "Energy-Aware TDMABased MAC for
    Sensor Networks", in Proc. of IEEE Workshop Integrated Management of Power
    Aware Comm. Computing and Networking, May 2002.
    130
    [6] A. Bakshi and V. K. Prasanna, "Energy-E°”cient Communication in Multi-
    Channel Single-Hop Sensor Networks", in Proc. of the Tenth International Con-
    ference Parallel and Distributed Systems, pp. 403, 2004.
    [7] D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks, Prentice Hall, 2nd edition, 1992.
    [8] G. Bianchi, "Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination
    Function", IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol 18, 2000.
    [9] B. Bougard, F. Catthoor, D. C. Daly, A. Chandrakasan and W. Dehaene, "En-
    ergy E°”ciency of the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard in Dense Wireless Micro sensor
    Networks: Modelling and Improvement Perspectives", in Proc. of Design Au-
    tomation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, pp. 196-201, 2005.
    [10] A. Boukerche, X. Cheng, and J. Linus, "A Performance Evaluation of a Novel
    Energy-Aware Data-Centric Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks",
    Wireless Networks, Vol 11, Issue 5, pp. 619-635, 2005.
    [11] E. Callaway, P. Gorday,L. Hester, J. A. Gutierrez, M. Naeve, B. Heile, and V.
    Bahl, "Home networking with IEEE 802.15.4: a developing standard for low-rate
    wireless personal area networks", IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol 40, Issue
    8, pp. 70-77, Aug, 2002.
    [12] B. Chen, K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan and R. Morris, "Span: An Energy-
    E°”cient Coordination Algorithm for Topology Maintenance in Ad Hoc Wireless
    Networks", in Proc. of IEEE/ACM MobiCom, Italy, July, 2001.
    131
    [13] X. Chen, P. Han, Q.-S. He, S.-L. Tu, and Z.-L. Chen, "A Multi-Channel MAC
    Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks" in Proc. of the Sixth IEEE International
    Conference on Computer and Information Technology, 2006.
    [14] Y. Chen, Q. A. Zeng, D. P. Agrawal, "Performance Analysis and Enhancement
    for IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol", in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference
    on Telecommunications, Vol 1, pp. 860-867, Mar, 2003.
    [15] C. -F. Chiasserini and M. Garetto, "Modeling the Performance of Wireless Sensor
    Networks", in Proc. of Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications
    Societies, Vol 1, pp. 231, 2004.
    [16] I. Chlamtac, W. R. Franta and K. Levin, "BRAM: The broadcast recognizing
    access method", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol 27, Issue 8, 1979.
    [17] I. Cidon and M. Sidi, "Distributed assignment algorithms for multihop packet
    radio networks", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol 38, Issue 10, pp. 1353-
    1361, 1989.
    [18] T. V. Dam and K. Langendoen, "An Adaptive Energy-E°”cient MAC Protocol
    for Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. of First ACM International Conference
    on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems , 2003.
    [19] S. C. Ergen and P. Varaiya, "PEDAMACS: Power E°”cient and Delay Aware
    Medium Access Protocol for Sensor Networks", IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing,
    Vol 5, Issue 7, pp. 920-930, July, 2006.
    132
    [20] D. Farber, J. Feldman, R. Heinrich, D. Hopwood, K. Larson, D. Loomis and L.
    Rowe, "The distributed computing system", in Proc. of IEEE COMPCON, San
    Francisco, CA, pp. 31-34, 1973.
    [21] C. Florens and R. McEliece, "Packet Distribution Algorithms for Sensor Net-
    works", in Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, San Francisco, Mar., 2003.
    [22] P. Gupta and P. R. Kumar, "The Capacity of Wireless Networks", IEEE Trans.
    on Information Theory, Vol 46, 2000.
    [23] J. A. Gutierrez, M. Naeve, E. Callaway, M. Bourgeois, V. Mitter, and B. Heile,
    "IEEE 802.15.4: a developing standard for low-power low-cost wireless personal
    area networks", IEEE Network, Vol 15, Issue 5, pp. 12-19, Sep, 2001.
    [24] J. Hill, R. Szewczyk, A. Woo, S. Hollar, D. Culler, K. Pister, "System Architec-
    ture Directions for Networked Sensors", in Proc. of the 9th International Con-
    ference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating
    Systems, pp. 91-104, Nov, 2000.
    [25] L. F. W. V. Hoesel and P. J. M. Havinga, "A Lightweight Medium Access Pro-
    tocol (LMAC) for Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. of First International
    Workshop Networked Sensing Systems, June, 2004.
    [26] A. E. Hoiydi and J.-D. Decotignie, "WiseMAC: An Ultra Low Power MAC Pro-
    tocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks," in Proc. of First International
    Workshop Algorithmic Aspects of Wireless Sensor Networks, July, 2004.
    133
    [27] I. Howitt, R. Neto, J. Wang, and J. M. Conrad, "Extended Energy Model for the
    Low Rate WPAN", in Proc. of 2nd IEEE International Conference on Mobile
    Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, 2005.
    [28] http://www.chipcon.com/°¬les/CC2420 Data Sheet 1 4.pdf Data sheet for
    CC2420 2.4GHz IEEE 802.15.4 = ZigBee RF transceiver.
    [29] http://www.xbow.com/Products/Product pdf °¬les/ Wire-
    less pdf/MICAz Datasheet.pdf.
    [30] J. Huang, Y. Huang, E. Callaway, Q. Shi and B. O'Dea, "Simulation of a Low
    Duty Cycle Protocol", in Proc. of OPNETWORK, USA, Aug., 2001.
    [31] IEEE. Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Spec-
    i°¬cations (IEEE 802.11), 1999.
    [32] IEEE Std 802.15.1-2002, "Wireless medium access control (MAC) and physical
    layer (PHY) speci°¬cations for wireless personal area networks", 2002.
    [33] IEEE Std 802.15.2-2003, "Coexistence of Wireless Personal Area Networks with
    Other Wireless Devices Operating in Unlicensed Frequency Bands", 2003.
    [34] IEEE: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
    Speci°¬ca- tions for High Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks WPANs, IEEE
    standard part 15.3 Std. IEEE Std 802.15.3, Sept., 2003.
    [35] IEEE. Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY)
    speci°¬cations for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs) (IEEE
    802.15.4), Sept, 2006.
    134
    [36] IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks part 16: Air interface
    for °¬xed broadband wireless access systems, May, 2004.
    [37] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan and D. Estrin, "Direct Di®usion: A Scal-
    able and Robust Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks", in Proc. of
    IEEE/ACM MobiCom, Boston, Aug., 2000.
    [38] R. Jain, A. Puri and R. Sengupta, "Geographical Routing for Wireless Ad Hoc
    Networks Using Partial Information", IEEE Personal Comm., Feb., 2001.
    [39] V. Kanodia, C. Li, A. Sabharwal, B. Sadeghi , and E. Knightly, "Ordered Packet
    Scheduling in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: Mechanisms and Performance Analy-
    sis", in Proc. of ACM MobiHoc, 2002.
    [40] L. Kleinrock, Queuing Systems: Vol. I. - Theory. John Wiley and Sons, New
    York, 1976.
    [41] L. Kleinrock, and M. O. Scholl, "Packet switching in radio channels: New
    conĘXict-free multiple access schemes", IEEE Transactions on Communications,
    Vol 28, Issue 7, pp. 1015-1029, 1980.
    [42] L. Kleinrock and F. Tobagi, "Packet switching in radio channels: Part I - carrier
    sense multiple access modes and their throughput delay characteristics", IEEE
    Transactions on Communications, Vol 23, Issue 12, pp. 1400-1416, 1975.
    [43] A. Kouba, M. Alves and E. Tovar, "A Comprehensive Simulation Study of Slotted
    CSMA/CA for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. of 6th IEEE
    International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems, Jun, 2006.
    135
    [44] J. Kulik, W. R. Heinzelman and H. Balakrishnan, "Negotiation based Proto-
    cols for Disseminating Information in Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. of
    ACM/IEEE MobiCom, Seattle, Aug., 1999.
    [45] S. S. Kulkarni and M. U. Arumugam, "TDMA Service for Sensor Networks",
    in Proc. of 24th International Conference Distributed Computing Systems Work-
    shops, Mar., 2004.
    [46] K. Langendoen and G. Halkes, In Embedded Systems Handbook, Chapter 34:
    Energy- E°”cient Medium Access Control, CRC Press, 2005.
    [47] J. S. Lee, "An experiment on performance study of IEEE 802.15.4 wireless net-
    works", in Proc. of IEEE 10th International Conference on Emerging Technolo-
    gies and Factory Automation, Sep, 2005.
    [48] P. Levis, N. Lee, M. Welsh, D. Culler, "TOSSIM: Accurate and Scalable Simula-
    tion of Entire TinyOS Applications", in Proc. of the 1st Iinternational Conference
    on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 126-137, Nov, 2003.
    [49] X. Li, Q. A. Zeng, "Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocols over
    WLANs with Capture E®ect", in Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on
    Mobile Computing and Ubiquitous Networking, Apr, 2005.
    [50] G. Lu, B. Krishnamachari, and C. S. Raghavendra, "An Adaptive Energy-
    E°”cient and Low-Latency MAC for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Net-
    works", in Proc. of 18th International Conference Parallel and Distributed Pro-
    cessing Symp., pp. 224, Apr., 2004.
    136
    [51] G. Lu, B. Krishnamachari and C. S. Raghavendra, "Performance Evaluation of
    the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC for Low-Rate Low-Power Wireless Networks, in Proc.
    of IEEE Workshop on Energy-E°”cient Wireless Communications and Networks,
    2004.
    [52] J. Ma, M. Gao, Q. Zhang, L. M. Ni, and W. Zhu, "Localized Low-Power Topology
    Control Algorithms in IEEE 802.15.4-Based Sensor Networks", in Proc. of 25th
    IEEE International Conference on ICDCS, June, 2005.
    [53] J. Martin, Communication Satellite systems, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1978.
    [54] MC13192 Datasheet (ver1.0),2004,freescale.
    [55] A. F. Mini, B. Nath, and A. A. F. Loureiro, "A Probabilistic Approach to Predict
    the Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc of 4th Workshop
    de Comunicao sem Fio e Computao Mvel, Brazil, Oct., 2002.
    [56] J. Misic, S. Sha°¬ and V. B. Misic, "Admission control in 802.15.4 beacon enabled
    clusters", in Proc. of International Conference on Communications and Mobile
    Computing, July, 2006.
    [57] J. Misic, S. Sha°¬, V. B. Misic, "Performance of a Beacon Enabled IEEE 802.15.4
    Cluster with Downlink and Uplink Tra°”c", IEEE Transactions on Parallel and
    Distributed Systems, Vol 17, Issue 4, pp. 361-376, 2006.
    [58] J. Misic and V. B. Misic, "Duty Cycle Management in Sensor Networks Based
    on 802.15.4 Beacon Enabled MAC", Journal of Ad Hoc and Sensor Wireless
    Networks, Vol 1, pp. 207-233, 2005.
    137
    [59] J. Misic, V. B. Misic and S. Sha°¬, "Performance of IEEE 802.15.4 Beacon En-
    abled PAN with Uplink Transmission in Non-Saturation Mode - Access Delay
    for Finite Bu®ers", in Proc. of 1st IEEE International Conference on Broadband
    Networks, pp. 416-425, Oct, 2004.
    [60] C. S. R. Murthy and B. S. Manoj, Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures
    and Protocols, Prentice Hall.
    [61] R. Nelson and L. Kleinrock, "Spatial TDMA: A collision free multihop channel
    access protocol", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol 33, Issue 9, pp.
    934-944, 1985.
    [62] Q. Ni, I. Aad, C. Barakat, T. Turletti, "Modeling and Analysis of Slow CW
    Decrease for IEEE 802.11 WLAN", in Proc. of the 14th IEEE International
    Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Vol 2, pp.
    1717-1721, Sep, 2003.
    [63] J. Olenewa, and M. Ciampa, Wireless: Guide to Wireless Communications (2nd
    ed.). Thomson Course Technology, United States, 2007.
    [64] T. R. Park, T. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, S. Choi and W. H. Kwon, "Throughput
    and Energy Consumption Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 Slotted CSMA-CA", IEE
    Electronics Letters, Vol 41, Issue 18, 2005.
    [65] G. Pei and C. Chien, "Low Power TDMA in Large Wireless Sensor Networks",
    in Proc. of IEEE Military Comm. Conference, Oct., 2001.
    138
    [66] M. Petrova, J. Riihijarvi, P. Mahonen and S. Labella, "Performance Study of
    IEEE 802.15.4 Using Measurements and Simulations", in Proc. of IEEE Wireless
    Communications and Networking Conference, Vol 1, pp. 487-492, 2006.
    [67] J. Polastre, J. Hill, and D. Culler, "Versatile Low Power Media Access for Wire-
    less Sensor Networks", in Proc. of Second ACM International Conference on
    Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Nov., 2004.
    [68] S. Pollin, M. Ergen, S. C. Ergen, B. Bougard, L. V. der Perre, F. Catthoor, I. Mo-
    erman, A. Bahai and P. Varaiya, "Performance Analysis of Slotted IEEE 802.15.4
    Medium Access Layer", http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/research/ccrg/DAWN/ pa-
    pers/ZigBeeMACvPV.pdf
    [69] C. S. Raghavendra and S. Singh, "PAMAS - Power Aware Multi-Access Protocol
    with Signalling for Ad Hoc Networks," Computer Communications Review, July,
    1998.
    [70] V. Rajendran, K. Obraczka, and J. J. Garcia, and L. Aceves, "Energy- E°”cient
    Collision-Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. of
    First ACM International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems,
    Mar., 2003.
    [71] V. Rajendran, J.J. Garcia, L. Aceves, and K. Obraczka, "Energy- E°”cient,
    Application-Aware Medium Access for Sensor Networks", in Proc. of Second
    IEEE International Conference Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems, Nov., 2005.
    139
    [72] I. Rhee, A. Warrier, M. Aia, and J. Min, Z-MAC: A Hybrid MAC for Wireless
    Sensor Networks, Proc. Third ACM Intl Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor
    Systems (SenSys 05), Nov. 2005.
    [73] P. K. Sahoo, J.-P. Sheu, and Y.-C. Chang, "Performance Evaluation of Wireless
    Sensor Network with Hybrid Channel Access Mechanism, Journal of Networks
    and Computer Applications, Vol 32, Issue 4, pp. 878-888, 2009.
    [74] C. Schurgers, V. Tsiatsis, S. Ganeriwal and M. Srivastava, "Topology Manage-
    ment for Sensor Networks: Exploiting Latency and Density", in Proc. of 3rd
    ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing,
    2002.
    [75] C. K. Singh and A. Kumar, "Performance Evaluation of an IEEE 802.15.4 Sensor
    Network with a Star Topology", ece.iisc.ernet.in/ anurag/papers/anurag/singh-
    kumar05submitted-detailed.pdf.gz
    [76] S. Singh and C. S. Raghavendra, "PAMAS: Power Aware Multi-Access Protocol
    with Signaling for Ad Hoc Networks", ACM Computer Communication Review,
    pp. 5-26, 1998.
    [77] Q. Shi, S. Kyperountas, N. S. Correal and N. Feng, "Performance Analysis of
    Relative Location Estimation for Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE
    Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol 23, Issue 4, pp. 830-838,
    2005.
    140
    [78] S. Y. Shin, H. S. Parky, S. Choi, W. H. Kwon, "Packet Error Rate Analysis of
    IEEE 802.15.4 under IEEE 802.11b Interference", Lecture Notes in Computer
    Science, May, 2005.
    [79] V. Shnayder, M. Hempstead, B. Chen, G. W. Allen, and M. Welsh, "Simulating
    the Power Consumption of Large-Scale Sensor Network Applications", in Proc.
    of the 2nd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor System,
    pp. 188-200, Nov, 2004.
    [80] Y. C. Tay, K. C. Chua, "A Capacity Analysis for the IEEE 802.11 MAC Proto-
    col", ACM Wireless Networks, Vol 7, Issue 2, pp. 159-171, 2001.
    [81] N. F. Timmons and W. G. Scanlon, "Analysis of the Performance of IEEE
    802.15.4 for Medical Sensor Body Area Networks", in Proc. of 1st IEEE In-
    ternational Conference on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks,
    2004.
    [82] F. A. Tobagi, L. Kleinrock, "Packet Switching in Radio Channels: Part IV - Sta-
    bility Considerations and Dynamic Control in Carrier Sensoe Multiple Access",
    IEEE Transaction on Communications, Vol 25, Issue 10, Oct, 1977.
    [83] M. Torrent-Moreno, D. Jiang, and H. Hartenstein, "Broadcast reception rates
    and e®ects of priority access in 802.11-based vehicular ad-hoc networks", in Proc.
    of ACM VANET, pp. 1018, 2004.
    [84] T. V. Truong, "TDMA in mobile radio networks", pp. 504-507, 1984.
    141
    [85] A. J. Viterbi, CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication, Addison-
    Wesley, Reading, MA, 1995.
    [86] J. Xiao and G. Zeng, "An Adaptive Message Passing MAC for Wireless Sensor
    Networks", in Proc. of IEEE Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile
    Computing Conference, pp. 2448-2451, 2007.
    [87] R. M. Yadumurthy, C. H. Adithya, M. Sadashivaiah, and R. Makanaboyina,
    "Reliable MAC broadcast protocol in directional and omni-directional transmis-
    sions for vehicular ad hoc networks", in Proc. of ACM VANET, pp. 1019, 2005.
    [88] F. Ye, H. Luo, J. Cheng, S. Lu and L. Zhang, "A Two-tier Data Dissemina-
    tion Model for Large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. of ACM/IEEE
    MobiCom, Atlanta, Sep., 2002.
    [89] W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, "An Energy-E°”cient MAC Protocol for
    Wireless Sensor Networks," in Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, June 2002.
    [90] W. Ye, J. Heidemann and D. Estrin, "Medium access control with coordinated
    adaptive sleeping for wireless sensor networks", IEEE/ACM Transactions on
    Networking, 2004.
    [91] R. Zheng, J. Hou and L. Sha, "Asynchronous Wakeup for Power Management
    in Ad Hoc Networks", in Proc. of IEEE MobiHoc, Annapolis, MD, June, 2003.
    [92] J. Zheng and M. J. Lee, "Will IEEE 802.15.4 Make Ubiquitous Networking a
    Reality?: A Discussion on a Potential Low Power, Low Bit Rate Standard",
    IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol 42, Issue 6, pp. 140-146, 2004.
    142
    [93] J. Zheng and M. J. Lee, "A Comprehensive Performance Study of IEEE
    802.15.4", IEEE Press Book, 2004.
    [94] T. Zheng, S. Radhakrishnan and V. Sarangan, "PMAC: An Adaptive Energy-
    E°”cient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks", in Proc. of IEEE Inter-
    national Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, 2005.
    14
    Advisor
  • Jang-Ping Sheu(≥\į∑•≠)
  • Files
  • 91542601.pdf
  • approve immediately
    Date of Submission 2009-07-15

    [Back to Results | New Search]


    Browse | Search All Available ETDs

    If you have dissertation-related questions, please contact with the NCU library extension service section.
    Our service phone is (03)422-7151 Ext. 57407,E-mail is also welcomed.