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Student Number 91322048
Author Hsin-Pao Wang(汪信寶)
Author's Email Address s1322048@cc.ncu.edu.tw
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 3269 times. Download 1515 times.
Department Civil Engineering
Year 2003
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title 日興土活化改質作為緩衝材料之回脹性質改善效應
Date of Defense 2004-06-30
Page Count 135
Keyword
  • activation
  • buffer material
  • swelling
  • Abstract According to the data of OECD/NEA,the cost of buffer material is 14%~18% of whole disposal program. The HLW disposal program needs enormous buffer material, so that every nuclear country prefers to use domestic bentonite as potential buffer material. Zhisin clay has been studied from 1985. Zhisin clay is Ca-bentonite and the swelling property is less than Na-bentonite. The objective of this study is aimed to search for possible activation methods to enhance the properties of buffer material, including physical modification, acid and base activation, thermal treatment, and cation-exchange method.
    The experimental results of this research show(1)the swelling potential of Zhisin clay modified by physical modification (or篩分析)is less than raw material;(2)the BET surface of Zhisin clay activated by HCl is increased with the concentration of acid solution;(3)thermal treatment could decreased the swelling potential of Zhisin clay, particularly when thermal temperature over 300℃;(4)base activation could erode impurity in raw material;(5)the swelling potential of Na2CO3-activated Zhisin clay is significantly increasing. The time-swell curve of Na2CO3-activated Zhisin clay is different from raw material.;(6)in this study, cation-exchange method could most affected promotion to swelling potential. But others shifting method can only change surface property of raw material and have refund to other mechanical properties In conclusion, Na2CO3 activation method could meet the swelling function of buffer material.
    Table of Content 目錄
    摘要……………………………………………………….…………………….I
    ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………..II
    目錄…………………………………………………………………………...III
    圖目錄………………………………………………………….…………...VIII
    表目錄……………………………………………………………….……....XII
    第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………….…..1
    1.1 緣起……………………………………………………………………..1
    1.2 研究目的………………………………………………………………..3
    1.3 研究範圍………………………………………………………………..4
    第二章 文獻回顧…...….……………….………….…….……...…………….6
    2.1 高放射性廢棄物最終處置場概念…….……………………………….6
    2.1.1 處置場設計概念………………………………………………...6
    2.1.2 近場環境……………………………………………...................8
    2.1.3 緩衝材料………………………………………………………...8
    2.1.3.1 緩衝材料預期功能............................................................9
    2.2 黏土礦物基本特性..…………………………………………………..12
    2.2.1 黏土礦物結晶構造…………………………………………….12
    2.2.2 常見黏土礦物種類…………………………………………….13
    2.2.2.1 蒙脫石……………………………………………...…...14
    2.2.2.2 伊利石…………………………………………………..14
    2.2.2.3 高嶺石…………………………………………………..14
    2.2.3 黏土-水-電解質交互作用………...……………………………16
    2.2.3.1 黏土-水-電解質系統……………………………………16
    2.2.3.2 黏土礦物水合作用……………………………………..18
    2.2.3.3 蒙脫石族礦物特性………………………………...…...20
    2.2.3.4 台東樟原膨潤之產狀與應用現況……………………..22
    2.3 黏土活化改良方法與機制……………………………………............24
    2.3.1 黏土礦物分離純化…………………………………………….24
    2.3.2 黏土礦物表面活化…………………………………………….25
    2.3.3 黏土礦物離子交換…………………………………………….26
    2.3.3.1 離子交換意義…………………………………………..26
    2.3.3.2 影響離子交換因素……………………………………..29
    2.3.3.3 離子交換遲滯性………………………………………..31
    2.3.3.4 緩衝材料離子交換方法………………………………..33
    2.3.4 黏土強度提昇………………………………………………….35
    2.4 處置場近場環境分析………………………………………................36
    2.4.1 衰變熱………………………………………………………….36
    2.4.2 蒙脫石礦物的脫水與再水化作用…………………………….36
    2.5 擴散雙層理論和模式原理…………………………………................37
    2.5.1 電解質濃度及離子價數對電雙層厚度之影響……..………...39
    2.6 回脹機制與回脹行為………………………………………................39
    2.6.1 回脹機制……………………………………………………….40
    2.6.1.1 晶格回脹………………………..………………………40
    2.6.1.2 滲透回脹…………………………….………………….41
    2.6.2 回脹行為………………………………………….……………42
    第三章 研究計畫…………………………………………………….………45
    3.1 試驗流程……………………………………………………………....45
    3.2 試驗材料……………………………………………………….……...47
    3.3 黏土活化改良方法…………………………………………………....47
    3.3.1 物理改良方法………………………………………………….47
    3.3.1.1 乾篩改良法……………………………………..............47
    3.3.1.2 濕篩改良法……………………………………..............48
    3.3.2 化學改良方法………………………………………….............48
    3.3.2.1 酸活化改良法…………………………………………..48
    3.3.2.2 鹼活化改良法…………………………………..............48
    3.3.3 NaCl 改良法………….…………...…………………...............49
    3.3.4 Na2CO3 改良法……….…………………...…………...............49
    3.3.4.1 乾式球磨混合法………………………………..............49
    3.3.4.2 乾式攪拌混合法………………………………..............49
    3.3.4.3 濕式浸泡法……………………………………..............50
    3.3.5 熱處理改良……………..……………………………………...50
    3.4 改良試體模擬近場環境試驗……………………..…………………..50
    3.4.1 衰變熱效應…………………………………..………………...50
    3.5 回脹試驗……………………………………………….…...................50
    3.5.1 回脹試驗方法選擇…………………………………………….51
    3.5.2 回脹試體製作………………………………………………….51
    3.5.3 單向度回脹試驗……………………………………………….53
    3.6 基本土壤力學性質分析………………………………………............55
    3.6.1 自然含水量…………………………………………………….55
    3.6.2 比重試驗……………………………………………………….56
    3.6.3 粒徑分析試驗………………………………………………….56
    3.6.4 阿太堡限度試驗……………………………………………….56
    3.6.5 活性(Activity) ………………………………………….............56
    3.7 材料性質分析…………………………………………………............56
    3.7.1 化學成分分析………………………………………………….56
    3.7.2 X光繞射分析儀………………...…...…...…………………….57
    3.7.3 熱重分析(TGA) ……………………………………………….57
    3.7.4 BET比表面積測定…………………...……...………………...58
    3.7.5 土壤pH反應……..…………………………………………….59
    3.7.6 土壤Eh反應……………………………………………............59
    第四章 試驗結果與分析…………………………………………………….60
    4.1 日興土原礦性質分析…………………………………………............60
    4.1.1 基本性質試驗分析…………………………………………….60
    4.1.2 化學成分分析……………………………………….................61
    4.1.3 XRD分析………...……...……………………………………..62
    4.1.4 熱重分析(TGA)………………………………………………..62
    4.1.5 日興土原礦之自由回脹……………………………………….64
    4.2 黏土材料回脹行為……………………………………………............65
    4.3 物理改良法………………………………..…………………………..70
    4.3.1 物理改良(乾篩及濕篩法)之自由回脹……………………….70
    4.3.2 試驗材料性質分析…………………………………………….73
    4.3.2.1 XRD分析………………...……………………………..73
    4.3.3 乾濕循環對自由回脹的影響………………………………….74
    4.4 酸活化改良法………………………………………………................76
    4.4.1 酸活化改良法之自由回脹…………………………………….76
    4.4.2 試驗材料性質分析………..…………………………………...80
    4.4.2.1 XRD分析………………......………………….………..80
    4.4.2.2 熱重分析(TGA)………………………………………..80
    4.5 鹼活化改良法……………………...………………………………….81
    4.5.1 鹼活化改良法之自由回脹…………………………………….82
    4.5.2 試驗材料性質分析…………………………………………….85
    4.5.2.1 XRD分析………………...…………………...………...85
    4.5.2.2 熱重分析(TGA)………………………………………..85
    4.5.2.3 BET比表面積測定化學活化對日興土表面性質影響..86
    4.6 熱處理改良法…………………………………………………............87
    4.6.1 熱處理改良法之自由回脹…………………………………….87
    4.6.2 試驗材料性質分析…………………………………………….92
    4.6.2.1 XRD分析…………...……...…………………………...92
    4.7 NaCl改良法…...…………………...………………………….............92
    4.7.1 NaCl改良法之自由回脹…………...…………...……………..93
    4.7.2 試驗材料性質分析…………………………………………….95
    4.7.2.1 XRD分析…………………..…………………………...95
    4.8 Na2CO3改良法…...…………………………………………................95
    4.8.1 不同改良程序之最大回脹應變量…………………………….96
    4.8.2 Na2CO3改良特性………………………...…………………….99
    4.8.2.1 回脹歷時曲線型態……………………………..............99
    4.8.2.2 XRD分析………………...…...……………….............108
    4.8.2.3 熱重分析(TGA)………………………………............108
    4.8.2.4 pH量測結果分析………………......………….............111
    4.8.2.5 陳化時間(Aging Time)效應對改良成效之影響….......111
    4.8.2.6 Na2CO3溶液系統對日興土離子交換性質影響……...114
    4.9 改良日興土在衰變熱狀態下之自由回脹…………………………..118
    第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………………...124
    5.1 結論…………………………………………………………………..124
    5.2 建議…………………………………………………………………..125
    參考文獻…………………………………………………………………….127
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