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Student Number 90144005
Author Hon-chung Wong(黃漢忠)
Author's Email Address honcwong1970@gmail.com
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 1454 times. Download 171 times.
Department Graduate Institute of Philosophy
Year 2009
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document Doctoral Dissertation
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title Construction of Just Health Theory from Confucian Perspective
Date of Defense 2010-06-25
Page Count 204
Keyword
  • Benchmarks of Fairness
  • Confucianism
  • Health Care
  • Justice
  • Norman Daniels
  • Abstract The aim of this study is to construct a theory of just health according to Confucian theory of justice. Health care is an important social goods for human beings to maintain and restore their healthy lives. As all countries around the world face the heavy burden of increasing health care needs, the problem of justice in distributing health care resources becomes one of the main concerns in academic circles. Among various philosophical approaches in addressing this problem, one of the most prominent approach would be the work of Norman Daniels in constructing his just health theory based on Rawlsian theory of justice as fairness. Two of the main elements in Daniels’ theory are his explanation on the objective and importance of health care and his formulation of a group of benchmarks for health care reform. For him, the objective of health care is to maintain or to restore our normal human species functioning in order to protect our normal range of opportunity. Since Rawls’ justice as fairness requires protecting opportunity, it gives special importance to meeting health care needs. Though Daniels’ theory may be more comprehensive and persuasive than other approaches in dealing with distributive justice in health care, as I argue in this work, his own approach is limited by contractarian and individualist perspectives.
    In this study, I clarify first the ultimate end of justice in Confucianism through an analysis on its classics and argue that for Confucian justice requires equality in fulfilling all kinds of beings, whether human or non-human, their own hsing feng, that is, requirements derived from their own essence. For human, it means that justice requires to protect all human beings their positive and negative rights to autonomy, to let and help them to realize their moral capacities and natural talents, to be healthy and to enjoy a happy familial life as far as possible. Confucian thinks that these requirements of justice are also the ultimate concern of health care, so that it should not be limited to maintain or restore normal human species functioning and should be extended to enhance human moral and other capacities through possible medical methods. Hence, I construct the basic principles of just health care in Confucianism according to its perspective on the ultimate concern of health care, as well as its views on the duty of a family to its members and a society to its worst off group regarding to their health care needs. Moreover, I offer a critical examination on Daniels’ theory of just health according to these principles and revise his benchmarks of fairness to formulate Confucian own version of benchmarks, in order to complete the construction on the basic structure of Confucian theory of just health.
    Table of Content 中文摘要 ……………………………………………………………i
    英文摘要 …………………………………………………………ii
    目錄   …………………………………………………………iv
    第一章 導論 …………………………………………………1
    第一節問題說明與研究目的 ………………………………… 1
    第二節學界對健康照護資源分配的論述及丹尼爾斯的回應…9
    第三節各章內容簡述 …………………………………………51
    第二章 羅爾斯的公義理論及其批評 ………………………54
    第一節羅爾斯的公義理論 ……………………………………54
    第二節能力進路對羅爾斯的批評 ……………………………65
    第三節福利或利益平等機會理論對羅爾斯的批評 …………73
    第三章 丹尼爾斯的健康公義理論 …………………………80
    第一節丹尼爾斯論健康照護的目的及重要性 ………………80
    第二節丹尼爾斯的健康照護改革之公平性基準 ……………109
    第三節丹尼爾斯對公平性基準的修正 ………………………117
    第四章 儒家的健康照護公義理論(一):基本義理 ……122
    第一節孔子言「義」的意指 …………………………………122
    第二節孟子言「義」的意指 …………………………………126
    第三節孟子的「仁政」 ………………………………………136
    第四節《禮記》〈禮運〉的「大同社會」 …………………142
    第五節〈中庸〉的「各盡其性分」 …………………………144
    第五章 儒家的健康照護公義理論(二):基本原則與公平性基準 …148
    第一節儒家的健康照護公義理論之基本原則 ………………149
    第二節從儒家的觀點省察丹尼爾斯的健康公義理論 ………150
    第三節建構儒家的健康照護公平性基準 ……………………161
    第六章 儒家健康公義理論之檢討:兼論台灣健康照護制度的公平性 …178
    第一節從儒家的公平性基準省察台灣的健康照護制度 ……178
    第二節儒家健康公義理論的價值 ……………………………189
    第三節研究成果、可能限制及未來展望 ……………………191
    參考文獻 ………………………………………………………… 196
    一、中文文獻 ………………………………………………196
    二、英文文獻 ………………………………………………200
    Reference 參 考 文 獻
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    (三)網路資料
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    二、英文文獻
    (一)專書、博碩士論文
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    Friedman, Milton (1962), Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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    Kant, Immanuel (1964). Trans. H. J. Paton, Groundwork of Metaphysic of Morals. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.
    ─── (1965). The Metaphysic of Morals: Part I The Metaphysical Elements of Justice, Trans. John Ladd. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Educational Publishers.
    Kittay, Eva Feder (1999). Love’s Labor: Essays on Women, Equality, and Dependency. New York: Routledge.
    Kymlica, Will (ed.) (1992). Justice in Political Philosophy (2 vol.). Aldershot, England: Edward Edgar Publishing Limited.
    Lee, Shui Chuen (ed.) (2007). The Family, Medical Decision-Making, and Biotechnology. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
    Locke, John (1980). Second Treatise of Government, C. B. Macpherson (ed.). Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc.,
    MacIntyre, Alisdair (1988). Whose Justice? Which Rationality? London: Duckworth.
    ─── (1981). After Virtue. London: Duckworth.
    Nozick, Robert (1974). Anarchy, State and Utopia. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
    Nussbaum, Matha (2000). Women and Human Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Nussbaum, Martha & Amartya Sen (ed.) (1993). The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Qiu, Ren-zong (ed.) (2004). Bioethics: Asian Perspectives. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Rawls, John (2001). Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. ed. Erin Kelly. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    ─── (1999). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    ─── (1995). Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Sandel, Michael (1982). Liberalism and the Limits of Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Sen, Amartya (1999). Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books.
    ─── (1992). Inequality Reexamined. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    ─── (1980). “Equality of What?” in S. McMurrin (ed.), The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, pp. 197-220.
    Shelp, Earl E. (ed.) (1981). Justice and Health Care. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: D. Reidel Publishing Company.
    Singer, Peter. Practical Ethics. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Swift, Adam & Stephen Mulhall (ed.) (1992). Liberals and Communitarians, 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
    Taylor, Charles (1990). Sources of the Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    ─── Philosophical Papers, vol. 2: Philosophy and the Human Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    VanDeVeer, Donald & Tom Regan (eds.) (1987). Health Care Ethics: An Introduction. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Veatch, Robert M. (1986). The Foundation of Justice: Why the Retarded and the Rest of Us Have Claims to Equality. New York: Oxford University Press.
    ─── (1981). A Theory of Medical Ethics. New York: Basic Book, Inc.
    Veatch, Robert M. (ed.) (1989). Medical Ethics. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
    Veatch, Robert M. & Roy Branson (eds.) (1976). Ethics and Health Policy. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Company.
    Walzer, Michael (1983). Spheres of Justice. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
    (二)期刊、研討會論文
    Allen, David B. & Norm Fost (1990). “Growth Hormone Therapy for Short Stature: Panacea or Pandora’s Box?” Journal of Pediatrics, 117: 16-21.
    Arneson, Richard (1998). “Equality and Equal Opportunity for Welfare”. Philosophical Studies, 54: 79-95.
    Cohen, G. A. (1989). “On the Currency of Egalitarian Justice” . Ethics, 99: 915.
    Brauer, S. (2009). “Age Rationing and Prudential Lifespan Account in Norman Daniels’ Just Health”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 35(1): 27-31.
    Dodds, Susan (1994). “Gender, Ageing and Injustice: Social and Political Contexts of Bioethics”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 31(5): 295-8.
    Daniels, Norman (2009). “Just Health: Replies and Further Thoughts”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 35(1): 36-41.
    ─── (2001). “Justice, Health and Health Care”. American Journal of Bioethics, 1(2): 3-15.
    ─── (1985). “Fair Equality of Opportunity and Decent Minimums: A Reply to Buchanan”. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 14(1): 106-110.
    Daniels, Norman, J. Bryant, R.A. Castano, O.G. Dantes, K.S. Khan & S. Pannarunothai (2000). “Benchmarks of Fairness for Health Care Reform: a policy tool for developing countries”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78 (6): 740-50.
    Fan, Ruiping (1997). “Confucian and Rawlsian Views of Justice: A Comparison”. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 24: 434-435.
    ─── (1997). “Self-Determination vs. Family Determination: Two Incommensurable Principle of Autonomy”. Bioethics, 11(3&4): 309-322.
    Hurst, S. A. (2009). “Just Care: Should Doctors Give Priority to Patients of Low Socioeconomic Status?” Journal of Medical Ethics, 35(1): 7-11.
    Kittay, Eva Fedar, Bruce Jennings & Angela A. Wasunna (2005). “Dependency, Difference and the Global Ethic of Longterm Care”. Journal of Political Philosophy, (13)4: 443-469.
    Lee, Shui Chuen (2006). “Justice and Equality in Health Care: A Confucian Critique”,發表於國立中央大學主辦「健康照護之生命倫理國際研討會」。
    Schefczyk, M. (2009). “The Multiple Self Objection to the Prudential Lifespan Account”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 35(1): 32-35.
    Rid, A. (2009). “Justice and Procedure: How does ‘Accountability for Reasonableness’ Result in Fair Limit-Setting Decisions”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 35(1): 12-16.
    Schmidt, H. (2009). “Just Health Responsibility”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 35(1): 21-26.
    Schramme, T. (2009). “On Norman Daniels’ Interpretation of the Moral Signifiance of Healthcare”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 35(1): 17-20.
    Segall, Shlomi (2007). “Is Health Care (Still) Special?” Journal of Political Philosophy, 15 (3): 342-361.
    Wilson, J. (2009). “Not so Special After All? Daniels and the Social Determinants of Health”. Journal of Medical Ethics, 35(1): 3-6.
    (三)網路資料
    Central Provident Fund Board, Singapore Government (2010). “CPF Contribution”. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from http://mycpf.cpf.gov.sg/Members/Gen-Info/Con-Rates/ContriRA.
    ─── (2010). “General Information on CPF Board”. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from http://ask-us.cpf.gov.sg/explorefaq.asp?category=23043.
    ─── (2010). “Overview”. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from http://mycpf.cpf.gov.sg/CPF/About-Us/Intro/Intro.htm.
    Daniels, Norman (2002). “Justice and Long-Term Care: Need We Abandon Social Contract Theory?” World Health Organization, Ethical Choices in Long-Term Care: What does Justice Require? pp. 31-65. Retrieved Feb 2, 2009 from http://www.who.int/ncd/long_term_care/index.htm.
    Kittay, Eva Feder (2002). “Can Contractualism Justify State-Supported Long-Term Care Politics? Or, I’d Rather be Some Mother’s Child: A Reply to Nussbaum and Daniels”. World Health Organization, Ethical Choices in Long-Term Care: What Does Justice Require? pp. 77-83. Retrieved Feb 2, 2009 from http://www.who.int/ncd/long_term_care/index.htm.
    Ministry of Health, Singapore Government (2010). “Healthcare Financing: Overview”. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from http://www.moh.gov.sg/mohcorp/hcfinancing.aspx?id=104.
    ─── (2010). “Medifund: Overview”. Retrieved June 15, 2010 from http://www.moh.gov.sg/mohcorp/hcfinancing.aspx?id=308#.
    Nussbaum, Martha C. Nussbaum (2002). “Long-Term Care and Social Justice: A Challenge to Conventional Ideas of the Social Contract”. World Health Organization, Ethical Choices in Long-Term Care: What does Justice Require? pp. 31-65. Retrieved, Feb 2, 2009 from http://www.who.int/ncd/long_term_care/index.htm.
    World Health Organization (2000). “The World Health Report 2000 - Health System: Improving Performance”. Retrieved Feb 2, 2009 from http://www.who.int/whr/2000/en/.
    Advisor
  • Shui-chuen Lee(李瑞全)
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    Date of Submission 2010-08-30

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