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Student Number 90122010
Author Chia-Chen Kuo(郭家珍)
Author's Email Address s0122010@cc.ncu.edu.tw
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 3695 times. Download 1568 times.
Department English
Year 2003
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language English
Title Shadow, Penumbra and Female
Empowerment in Mrs.Dalloway
Date of Defense 2004-07-09
Page Count 110
Keyword
  • female empowerment
  • Mrs. Dalloway
  • penumbra
  • reticent patriarchy
  • stream of consciousness
  • Abstract This thesis is intended to argue that in Virginia Woolf’s novel, Mrs. Dalloway, under the inconspicuous influence and domination of reticent patriarchy, four female characters try to articulate themselves and win themselves agency.
    In the novel, reticent patriarchy has other names: Proportion and Conversion, which are propagated by some male characters, and that produces an overall submissive situation, including males’ and females’ submission. Besides using Ding Naifei and Jen-Peng Liu’s idea of reticence, I also change their original equation of substance/patriarchy, shadow/feminism and penumbra/queer into a new one, which consists of substance/patriarchy, shadows/docile female characters and penumbrae/alternative female characters. This new equation clearly presents that there are other female characters having different thoughts about their situations. Rezia Smith, Doris Kilman, Lady Bruton and Clarissa Dalloway are my examples. I intend to discuss these four women’s situations by separating them into two groups according to their class positions: Rezia and Miss Kilman from one group while Lady Bruton and Clarissa constitute the other.
    The reason why I identify them as penumbrae is not because they do not have the shadow sides or they are not interpellated by patriarchy, but because, as we can see from their not fully aware and alternative behaviors, they possess the penumbra sides. I especially want to demonstrate that how their shadow sides contradict their penumbra sides, and their repression is the effect of this contradiction.
    These four women may not be aware of their repressed thoughts, but they are indeed the direct challenge to reticent patriarchy. The stream of consciousness technique provides readers the first-hand information by participating in their consciousness. This technique both presents their repression but also their methods of empowerment. Some of them better their material conditions or assure their life survival; some of them change the ways they used to see the society or themselves. Either way, those behaviors indicate the existence of penumbra’s agency. As penumbrae, they are no more shapeless and voiceless; instead, in different ways, they perform their subjectivity and agency.
    Table of Content Abstract
    論文摘要
    致謝
    Introduction-----------------------------------1
    Chapter One Silent Tolerance and the Stream of Consciousness Technique in Mrs. Dalloway --------------------------------------8
    I. Tender Violence of Silent Tolerance --------8
    II. Reticent Domestic Ideology and Woolf’s Personal Experiences -----12
    III. Reticent Patriarchy in Mrs. Dalloway ----15
    A. Substances --------------------------------16
    B. Shadows -----------------------------------22
    C. Penumbrae ---------------------------------27
    IV. The Stream of Consciousness Technique ----28
    A. Plot Narration: Characters’ True Articulation-----------28
    B. A Writing Strategy: The Author’s Direct Criticism-------32
    V. Women’s Empowerment in Mrs. Dalloway -------------------35
    Chapter Two Negligible Voices of Lower Middle Class Women: Rezia Smith and Doris Kilman ---------------------------------38
    Rezia Smith’s Making Hats -----------------38
    Miss Kilman’s Devotion --------------------53
    Chapter Three Unaware Thoughts of Class Privileged Women: Lady Bruton and Clarissa Dalloway --------------------------67
    Lady Bruton’s Ambition --------------------68
    Clarissa Dalloway’s Paradoxical Autonomy --83
    Conclusion ---------------------------------98
    Works Cited -------------------------------106
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    ---. “Narrative Structure(s) and Female Development: The Case of Mrs. Dalloway.” Modern Critical Interpretations: Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 103-25.
    Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. 7th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1999.
    Armstrong, Nancy. Desire and Domestic Fiction: the Political History of the Novel. New York: Oxford UP, 1987.
    Batchelor, J. B. “Feminism in Virginia Woolf.” Sprague 169-79.
    Beja, Morris, ed. Critical Essays on Virginia Woolf. Boston and Massachusetts: G. K. Hall and Co., 1985.
    Bloom, Harold, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988.
    Brower, Reuben. “Something Central Which Permeated: Virginia Woolf and ‘Mrs. Dalloway.’” Sprague 51-62.
    Carabine, Keith. Introduction. By Virginia Woolf. Hertfordshrine: Wordsworth Classics, 2000. v-xxiv.
    Davidoff, Leonore, and Catherine Hall. Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780-1850. London: Hutchinson, 1987.
    DeSalvo, Louise. Epilogue. Virginia Woolf: The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Her Life and Work. New York: Ballantine Books, 1989. 301-05.
    Ding Naifei and Jen-Peng Liu. “Penumbrae Ask Shadow: Reticent Poetics, Queer Politics.” Unpublished essay.
    ---. “Penumbrae Ask Shadow (II): Crocodile Skin, Lesbian Stuffing, Qiu Miaojin’s Half-Man Half-Horse.” Unpublished essay.
    Freedman, Ralph, ed. Virginia Woolf: Reevaluation and Continuity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
    Fusini, Nadio. Introduction. By Virginia Woolf. London: Everyman’s Library, 1993. v-xxi.
    Gordon, Lyndall. Virginia Woolf: A Writer’s Life. New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1984.
    Hall, Catherine. White, Male and Middle-Class: Explorations in Feminism and History. New York: Routledge, 1992.
    Henke, Suzette A. “Mrs. Dalloway: the Communion of Saints.” New Feminist Essays on Virginia Woolf. Ed. Jane Marcus. London and Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1981. 125-47.
    Humphrey, Robert. Stream of Consciousness in the Modern Novel: A Study of James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, William Faulkner, and Others. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.
    Leaska, Mitchell. Introduction. By Virginia Woolf. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers, 1990. xv-xlv.
    Marcus, Jane, ed. New Feminist Essays on Virginia Woolf. London and Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1981.
    McNeillie, Andrew, ed. The Common Reader: First Series. San Diego: A Harvest Book, 1984.
    Miller, J. Hillis. “Mrs. Dalloway: Reception as Raising of the Dead.” Beja. 53-72.
    Minow-Pinkney, Makiko. “Mrs. Dalloway.” Virginia Woolf and the Problem of the Subject. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1987. 54-83.
    Novak, Jane. “A Very Finely Considered Balance: Mrs. Dalloway.” The Razor Edge of Balance: A Study of Virginia Woolf. Coral Gables: University of Miami Press, 1975. 106-27.
    Reid, Su, ed. Mr. Dalloway and To the Lighthouse. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
    Rosenthal Michael. “Mrs. Dalloway.” Virginia Woolf. New York: Columbia UP, 1979. 87-102.
    Ruotolo, Lucio. “Mrs. Dalloway: The Unguarded Moment.” Virginia Woolf: Revaluation and Continuity. Ed. Ralph Freedman. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. 141-60.
    Schaefer, Josephine O’Brien. “Mrs. Dallowy: 1925.” The Three-Fold Nature of Reality in the Novels of Virginia Woolf. 1965. London: Mouton & Co., 1978. 85-109.
    Sprague, Claire, ed. Virginia Woolf: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliff: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1971.
    Tambling, Jeremy. “Repression in Mrs. Dalloway’s London.” Mrs. Dalloway and To the Lighthouse. Ed. Su Reid. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. 57-70.
    Thompson, Paul. The Edwardians: the Remaking of British Society. 1975. London and New York: Routledge, 1992.
    Woolf, Virginia. A Passionate Apprentice: the Early Journals, 1897-1909. Ed. Mitchell Leaska. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers, 1990.
    ---. A Room of One’s Own. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1991.
    ---. “Modern Fiction.” The Common Reader: First Series. Ed. Andrew McNeillie. San Diego: A Harvest Book, 1984. 146-54.
    ---. Mrs. Dalloway. Hertfordshrine: Wordsworth Classics, 2000.
    ---. Mrs. Dalloway. London: Everyman’s Library, 1993.
    ---. Mrs. Dalloway. New York: Penguin Books, 1996.
    Zwerdling, Alex. “Mrs. Dalloway and the Social System.” Beja. 131-51.
    丁乃非、劉人鵬。 〈罔兩問景:含蓄美學與酷兒政略〉。 《性卅別研究第三、四期合刊〈酷兒:理論與政治〉專號》。 中壢:中央大學, 1998。 109-55。
    ---。 〈罔兩問景(II):鱷魚皮 拉子餡 半人半馬邱妙津〉。 性卅別研究室超薄型學術研討會。 1999年11月27日。 中壢:中央大學, 1999年。
    Advisor
  • Amie Parry(白瑞梅)
  • Files
  • 90122010.pdf
  • approve immediately
    Date of Submission 2004-07-16

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