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Student Number 89343015
Author Chi-ming Yang(楊啟明)
Author's Email Address cmyang@viewmove.com
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 686 times. Download 10 times.
Department Mechanical Engineering
Year 2009
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document Doctoral Dissertation
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title An Innovative Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Measurement Method Using Peak Time Sequences of Different Frequencies
Date of Defense 2010-06-15
Page Count 70
Keyword
  • Acoustic applications
  • Acoustic devices
  • Acoustic distance measurement
  • Acoustic measurements
  • Acoustics
  • Abstract This paper proposes an innovative distance measurement method based on the time of flight (TOF) of ultrasound. By introducing received ultrasonic wave peak time sequences (PTS) of two slightly different frequencies, the relative distance can be accurately identified with resolution much better than a wavelength. The new PTS distance measurement is achieved in two steps. Firstly, a peak time sequence is built for received ultrasound signal of each frequency according to the arrival time of the wave peaks by calculating the mean value of the adjacent crossover time. Secondly, the arrival time of the wave front is rebuilt by estimating the common initiation time of the peak time sequences for the received waves of slightly different frequencies.
    A mathematical model is derived to describe the signal reception, from which the TOF estimation algorithm was derived. A simulation model describing the characteristics of the ultrasonic transducer and the ultrasonic wave propagation physics is developed to verify the new algorithm.
    An experimental system was implemented to confirm the feasibility. A PC-based test bench was built to test the characteristics. The characteristics of the transient behavior of the PTS were studied to determine the implementation parameters. Obtaining the PTS by averaging repeated tests was found to be effective in enhancing the precision, as well as the robustness, of the algorithm. In a TOF measurement over the distance of 145cm , a STD of 0.0113 of a period was achieved by a nominal driving wave period of 25.6us (39KHz) and frequency difference factor of 0.0048. When applied to distance measurement, the worst STD of 0.097mm was achieved with a relative distance ranging up to 1450mm, given the nominal driving wavelength of 8.6mm. This new dual frequencies PTS based TOF measurement system can be economically embedded in a micro controller together with floating point gate array (FPGA), and some simple transistors suitable for positioning mobile units indoors or in small open field environments.
    Table of Content 論 文 摘 要I
    ABSTRACTII
    謝誌IV
    目錄V
    圖目VII
    表目X
    第一章緒論1
    1.1前言1
    1.2 現有超音波測距法回顧2
    1.3 本文之貢獻5
    1.4 本文的架構6
    第二章超音波測距系統的特性分析8
    2.1 超音波系統之動態模型8
    2.2 超音波轉能器之特性9
    2.3 超音波轉能器之模型推導12
    2.4 飛行時間的模擬14
    2.5 超音波的傳遞與能量衰減15
    2.6 放大增益16
    2.7 比較器門檻值17
    2.8 系統模型的模擬輸出比較17
    2.9 超音波傳遞系統的問題18
    第三章雙頻超音波演算法推導與模擬21
    3.1 波峰到達時間的數學模型21
    3.2基於波峰波谷資訊的演算法推算27
    3.3模擬結果與雜訊干擾的影響28
    3.3.1 理想狀態下的測試29
    3.3.2 雜訊對系統之影響30
    3.4 模擬結果討論35
    第四章硬體測試平台的規劃36
    4.1 雙頻超音波測距系統36
    4.1.1主控次系統37
    4.1.2 受控次系統38
    4.2 硬體次系統介紹38
    4.2.1 超音波叢波產生器39
    4.2.2 超音波波緣到達時間記錄器41
    4.3 實驗測試平台架構42
    第五章實驗規劃與測試結果44
    5.1 瞬時頻率變化實驗44
    5.2飽和穩定時區實驗47
    5.3量測環境變異實驗51
    5.4叢波間隔影響實驗55
    5.5雙頻法距離量測實驗61
    第六章結論與未來發展65
    參 考 文 獻67
    附錄:學經歷及著作列表70
    Reference [1] C. F. Huang, M. S. Young, and Y. C. Lin, “Multiple-Frequency Continuous Wave Ultrasonic for Accuracy Distance Measurement”, Review of Scientific Instruments, Volume 70, Number 2, February 1999
    [2] M. Yang, S. L. Hill, B. Bury, and J. O. Gray, “A Multifrequency AM-based Ultrasonic System for Accuracy Distance Measurement”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, VOL. 43, NO. 6, December 1994
    [3] Lawrence E. Kinsler, and Austin R. Fery, “Fundamentals Of Acoustics”, American Journal of Physics, Vol. 19, NO. 4, pp. 254-255, April 1951.
    [4] Elmer, H., Schweinzer, H., “High resolution ultrasonic distance measurement in air using coded signals”, Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2002. IMTC/2002. Proceedings of the 19th IEEE, Vol. 2, pp. 1565–1570, Aug. 2002.
    [5] Francis E. Gueuning, Mihai Varlan, Christian E. Eug`ene, and Pascal Dupuis, "Accurate distance measurement by an autonomous ultrasonic system combining time-of-flight and phase-shift methods", IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol.46 No.6, pp. 1236-1240, Dec. 1997.
    [6] Angrisani, L., Schiano Lo Moriello, R., “Estimating ultrasonic time-of-flight through quadrature demodulation” , IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 55, NO. 1, pp. 54–62, Feb. 2006.
    [7] Leopoldo Angrisani, Aldo Baccigalupi, and Rosario Schiano Lo Moriello, “Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Estimation Through Unscented Kalman Filter”, IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 55, NO. 4, pp. 1077- 1084, Aug. 2006.
    [8] Leopoldo Angrisani, Aldo Baccigalupi, and Rosario Schiano Lo Moriello, “A measurement method based on Kalman filtering for ultrasonic time-of-flight estimation”, IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 55, NO. 2, pp. 442 – 448, Apr. 2006.
    [9] D. Marioli, C. Narduzzi, C. Offelli, D. Petri, E. Sardini, and A. Taroni, “Digital time-of-flight measurement for ultrasonic sensors”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, VOL. 41, NO. 1, February 1992
    [10] M. Parrila, J. J. Anaya, and C. Fritsch, “Digital Signal Processing Techniques for High Accuracy Ultrasonic Range Measurements”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, VOL.40, NO.4, August 1991
    [11] K. Nakahira, D. Kodama, S. Morita, and S. Okuma, “Distance Measurement by an Ultrasonic System Based on a Digital Polarity Correlator”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, VOL. 50, NO. 6, December 2001
    [12] G. Andria, F. Attivissimo, and N. Giaquinto, “Digital signal processing techniques for accurate ultrasonic sensor measurement”, Measurement, Vol. 30, September 2001, pp105-114
    [13] D. Webster, “A pulsed ultrasonic distance measurement system based upon phase digitizing,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol.43, Iss.4, Aug 1994, Pages:578-582
    [14] C. Cai and Paul P. L. Regtien, “Accurate Distance time-of-flight Measurement using self-interference”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, VOL. 42, NO. 6, December 1993
    [15]Kenji Nakahira, Tetsuji Kodama, Shin Morita, and Shigeru Okuma, "Distance measurement by an ultrasonic system based on a digital polarity correlator", IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol.50, No.6, pp. 1748-1752, Dec. 2001.
    [16]C. F. Huang, M. S. Young, and Y. C. Li, "Multiple-frequency continuous wave ultrasonic system for accurate distance measurement", American Institute of Physics, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 1452-1458, Feb. 1999.
    [17]The specification of 400ST/R120 ultrasonic transducer by Prowave can be found on the WWW at http://www.prowave.com.tw/pdf/T400S12.PDF
    [18]A. P. Cracknell, “Ultrasonics.” London: Wykeham, 1982, chap.3
    [19]“Choosing an Ultrasonic Sensor for Proximity or Distance Measurement,” 網址:http://www.sensorsmag.com/articles/0299/acou0299/main.shtml
    Advisor
  • Shyh-biau Jiang(江士標)
  • Files
  • 89343015.pdf
  • disapprove authorization
    Date of Submission 2010-06-21

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