Title page for 89343010


[Back to Results | New Search]

Student Number 89343010
Author Wen-Lung Yang(s)
Author's Email Address s9343010@cc.ncu.edu.tw
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 2177 times. Download 985 times.
Department Mechanical Engineering
Year 2005
Semester 1
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document Doctoral Dissertation
Language English
Title Transport Phenomena in Sheared Granular Flows
Date of Defense 2005-09-16
Page Count 118
Keyword
  • cohesion
  • granular flows
  • shear cell
  • stress gage
  • Abstract This thesis examines the dynamic behavior of a granular material sheared in a shear cell. This type of flow is known as a Couette flow in fluid mechanics. In this thesis, we study two different kinds of granular Couette flows. One is the cohesionless granular material flow and the other is the cohesive granular material flow with adding little amount of water or silicone oils.
    Experiments are performed in a shear cell device. The glass spheres are used as granular materials. The motions of the granular materials are recorded by a high-speed camera. The image processing technology and particle tracking method are employed to measure the average and fluctuation velocities in the streamwise and the transverse directions. By tracking the movements of particles continually, the variation in the mean-square diffusive displacements with time is plotted and the self-diffusion coefficient is determined. Three bi-directional stress gages are installed to measure the normal and shear stresses along the upper wall.
    In granular material flows, the interactive collisions between particles are the dominant mechanism affecting the flow behavior and cause the random motions of particles. In the first part of this thesis, the influence of solid fraction of granular material on the transport properties is discussed. For the denser granular flows, the shear rate, the granular temperature, the wall stresses, the effective viscosity and the energy dissipation are greater. However, the denser granular flow has the smaller self-diffusion coefficient.
    In granular flow, the cohesive forces between particles include Van Der Waals force, sintering force, liquid bridge force and electrical force. The liquid bridge force is more important than the other forces in a high moisture system. A series of experiments were performed by adding different amount of water to the granular material system. The influence of the dimensionless liquid volumes of water added is studied in the second part of this thesis. The energy dissipations in the shear cell device are generated from the friction and inelasticity between particles and viscous resistance due to surrounding moisture. The energy dissipation increases monotonously with the increase of the dimensionless liquid volume.
    Because the energy dissipations in the shear cell are also contributed from the viscous resistance, thus the viscosity of the adding liquids have strongly influence on the behavior of wet granular system. The third part of this thesis discusses the influence of adding different silicone oils with different viscosities. The Granular Bond Number and the Collision Number are used to discuss the behaviors of the wet granular flow system.
    The works in this thesis are relatively fundamental. However, these issues are important for developing the insides of sheared granular flows, especially wet systems. We wish that the results will bring some new information to the research field and also be contributed to the related industries.
    Table of Content Abstract                         IV
    List of Figures                      IX
    List of Tables                      XIVNomenclature                       XV
    1 Introduction KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK1
    1.1 Motivation KKKKKKKKKKKKK.KKKKKKKK...1
    1.2 Experiment ...KKKKK.KKKKKKKK.KKKKKKK..4
    1.3 Overview of Thesis ...KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK...6
    2 Experimental Setup and Technique KKKKKKKKKKKK...8
    2.1 Shear Cell Setup KKKKKKKKKKKKKK....KKKK...8
    2.2 Stress Gage KKKKKKKKKKKKKK..KKKKKK..9
    2.3 Image Processing Technology KKKKKKKKKKKKK.10
    2.4 Velocity Measurement Techniques K.KKKKKK..KKK..11
    2.5 Self-Diffusion Analysis KKKKKKKKKKK...KKKK12
    2.6 Wall Friction Effect of the Plexiglass Walls KKKK.KK..14
    2.7 Radial Effect Measurement KKKKK.....KKKKKK..K.14
    3 Solid Fraction Effect in Granular Sheared Flows K...KK.KK.20
    3.1 Introduction KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK.20
    3.2 Experimental Control and Technique KK..KK...KKKK..21
    3.3 Results of Solid Fraction Effect KKKKK..KKKKKK22
    3.4 Summary KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK.33
    4 Moisture Effect in Granular Sheared Flows KKK...KKKKKK.51
    4.1 Introduction KKKKK..KKKKKKKKKKKKKKK.51
    4.2 Experimental Techniques KKKKKK......KKKKKK.K.54
    4.3 Granular Bond Number and Collision Number KKKK.K.56
    4.4 Results and Discussions of Wet Granular Flows KKK...K57
    4.5 Summary KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK.KKK.66
    5 Viscosity Effect in Granular Shear Flows KKKKKKKKKKK.76
    5.1 Introduction KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK..76
    5.2 New Shear Cell Device KKKKKKKK.K...KKKKK.79
    5.3 Results of Viscous Particles K..KKKKKKKKKKKK81
    5.4 Summary KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK.KKKKK.89
    6 Conclusion KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK105
    Bibliography                       108
    Appendix                        116
    Reference Adams, M. J., Parchard, V., 1985. The cohesive forces between particles with interstitial fluid. Inst. Chemical Engineering Symp., Vol. 91, 147-160.
    Aidanpää, J. O., Shen, H. H., Gupta, R. B., 1996. Experimental and numerical studies of shear layers in granular shear cell. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 122, 187-196.
    Bagnold, R. A., 1954. Experiments on a gravity-free dispersion of large solid spheres in a Newtonian fluid under shear. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A, Vol. 225, 49-63.
    Barker, G. C., Mehta, A., 1993. Transient phenomena, self-diffusion and orientational effects in vibrated powders. Physical Review E, Vol. 47, 184-188.
    Bilgili, E., Yepes, J., Stephenson, L., Johanson, K., Scarlett, B., 2004. Stress inhomogeneity in powder specimens tested in the Jenike shear cell: myth of fact? Particle and Particle System Characterization, Vol. 21, 293-302.
    Buggish, H., Löffelmann, G., 1989. Theoretical and experimental investigation into local granulate mixing mechanism. Chemical Engineering Process, Vol. 26, 193-200.
    Campbell, C. S., 1989. The stress tensor for simple shear flow of a granular material. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 203, 449-473.
    Campbell, C. S., 1990. Rapid granular flows. Annual Reviews in Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 22, 57-92.
    Campbell, C. S., 1997. Self-diffusion in granular shear flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 348, 85-101.
    Campbell, C. S., Brennen, C. E., 1985. Computer simulation of granular shear flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 151, 167-188.
    Campbell, C. S., Gong, A., 1986. The stress tensor in a two-dimensional granular shear flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 164, 107-125.
    Craig, K., Buckholz, R. H., Domoto, G., 1986. An experimental study of the rapid flow of dry cohesionless metal powders. Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 53, 935-942.
    Drake, T. G., 1991. Granular flow: physical experiment and their implications for microstructural theories. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 225, 121-152.
    Einstein, A., 1956. Investigations on the Theory of Non-Uniform Gases. New York: Dover Publ. Co. Chapter 1, 12-27.
    Ennis, B. J., Li, J., Tardos, G., Pfeffer, R., 1990. The influence of viscosity on the strength of an axially strained pendular liquid bridge. Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 45, 3071-3088.
    Ennis, B. J., Tardos, G., Pfeffer, R., 1991. A microlevel-based characterization of granulation phenomena. Powder Technology, Vol.65, 257-272.
    Halsey, T. C., Levine, A. J., 1998. How sandcastles fall. Physical Review Letter, Vol. 80, 3141-3144.
    Hanes, D. M., Inman, D. L., 1985. Observations of rapid flowing granular-fluid flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 150, 357-380.
    Hopkins, M. A., Shen, H. H., 1992. A Monte-Carlo solution for rapidly shearing granular flows based on the kinetic-theory dense gases. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 244, 477-491.
    Hsiau, S. S., Hunt, M. L., 1993a. Shear-induced particle diffusion and logitndinal velocity fluctuations in a granular-flow mixing layer. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 251, 299-313.
    Hsiau, S. S., Hunt, M. L., 1993b. Kinetic theory analysis of flow-induced particle diffusion and thermal conduction in granular material flows. Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 115, 541-548.
    Hsiau, S. S., Jang, H. W., 1998. Measurements of velocity fluctuations of granular materials in a shear cell. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol. 17, 202-209.
    Hsiau, S. S., Shieh, Y. H., 1999. Fluctuations and self-diffusion of sheared granular material flows. Journal of Rheology, Vol. 43, 1049-1066.
    Hsiau, S. S., Wu, M. S., Chen, C. H., 1998. Arching phenomena in a vibrated granular bed. Powder Technology, Vol. 99, 185-193.
    Hsiau, S. S., Yang, W. L., 2002. Stresses and transport phenomena in sheared granular flows with different wall conditions. Physics of Fluids, Vol. 14, 612-621.
    Hsiau, S. S., Yang, W. L., 2005. Transport property measurements in sheared granular flows. Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 60, 187-199.
    Hunt, M. L., Hsiau, S. S., Hong, K. T., 1994. Particle mixing and volumetric expansion in a vibrated granular bed. Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol. 116, 785-791.
    Hwang, C. L., Hogg, R., 1980. Diffusive mixing in flowing powders. Powder Technology, Vol. 26, 93-101.
    Jenike, A. W., 1964. Storage and flow of solids. Bulletin of the University of Utah, Vol. 53.
    Jenkins, J. T., Richman, M. W., 1985. Kinetic theory for plane flows of a dense gas of identical, rough, inelastic, circular disks. Physics of Fluids, Vol. 28, 3485-3494.
    Jenkins, J. T., Savage, S. B., 1983. A theory for the rapid flow of identical, smooth, nearly elastic, particles. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 130, 187-202.
    Johnson, P. C., Jackson, R., 1987. Frictional-collisional constitutive relations for granular materials, with application to plane shearing. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 176, 67-93.
    Lan, Y., Rosato, A. D., 1995. Macroscopic behavior of vibrating beds of smooth inelastic spheres. Physics of Fluids, Vol. 7, 1818-1831.
    Lian, G., Thornton, C., Adams, M. J., 1993. A theoretical study of liquid bridge forces and stability between two rigid spherical bodies. Journal of Colloid Interface Science, Vol. 161, 138-147.
    Lohse, D., Bergmann, R, Mikkelsen, R., Zeilstra, C. Meer, D., Versluis, M., Weele, K., Hoef, M., Kuipers, H., 2004. Soft matter, biological, and interdisciplinary physics - impact on soft sand: void collapse and jet formation. Physical Review Letters, Vol. 93, 198003-198100.
    Lun, C. K. K., 1991. Kinetic theory for granular flow of dense, slightly inelastic, slightly rough spheres. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 233, 539-559.
    Lun, C. K. K., Savage, S. B., 1987. A simple kinetic theory for granular flow of rough, inelastic, spherical particles. Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 54, 47-53.
    Lun, C. K. K., Savage, S. B., Jeffrey, D. J., Chepurniy, N., 1984. Kinetic theories for granular flow: inelastic particles in Couette Flow and slightly inelastic particles in a flow field. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 140, 233-256.
    McCarthy, J. J., 2003. Micro-modeling of cohesive mixing processes. Powder Technology, Vol. 138, 63-67.
    Munson, B. R., Young, D. F., Okiishi, T. H., 2002. Fundamentals of fluid mechanics 4th edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Table 1.5.
    Nase, S. T., Vargas, W. L., Abatan, A. A., McCarthy, J. J., 2001. Discrete characterization tools for cohesive granular material. Powder Technology, Vol. 116, 214-223.
    Natarajan, V. V. R., Hunt, M. L., Taylor, E. D., 1995. Local measurements of velocity fluctuations and diffusion coefficients for a granular material flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 304, 1-25.
    Newitt, D. M., Conway J. M., 1958. A contribution to the theory and practice of granulation. Trans. Inst. Chemical Engrs., Vol. 36, 422-442.
    Ogawa, S., 1978. Multi-temperature theory of granular materials. In Proceedings of US-Japan Seminar on Continuum-Mechanical and Statistical Approaches in the Mechanics of Granular Materials, Tokyo 208-217.
    Ottino, J. M., Khakhar, D. V., 2000. Mixing and segregation of granular materials. Annual Reviews in Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 32, 55-91.
    Oulahna, D., Cordier, F., Galet, L., Dodds, J. A., 2003. Wet granular: the effect of shear on granule properties. Powder Technology, Vol. 130, 238-246.
    Savage, S. B., Dai, R., 1993. Studies of granular shear flows: Wall slip velocities, layering and self-diffusion. Mechanics of Materials, Vol. 16, 225-238.
    Savage, S. B., Jeffrey, D. J., 1981. The stress tensor in a granular flow at high shear rates. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 110, 255-272.
    Savage, S. B., Mckeown, S., 1983. Shear stress developed during rapid shear of dense concentrations of large spherical particles between concentric cylinders. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 127, 453-472.
    Savage, S. B., Sayed, M., 1984. Stresses developed by dry cohesionless granular materials sheared in an annular shear cell. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 142, 391-430.
    Scott, A. M., Bridgewater, J., 1976. Self-diffusion of spherical particles in a simple shear apparatus. Powder Technology, Vol. 14, 177-183.
    Shamlou, P. A., 1988. Handling of Bulk Solids. Butterworth, London.
    Smid, J., 1980. Pressure cell for the measurement of normal and shear stresses of particulate solids. Czech. Patent, Vol. 213, 844.
    Tardos, G. I., Hapgood, K. P., Ipadeola, O. O., Michaels, J. N., 2003. Stress measurements in high-shear granulators using calibrated test particles: application to scale-up. Powder Technology, Vol. 140, 217-227.
    Tardos, G. I., Khan, M. I., Mort, P. R., 1997. Critical parameters and limiting conditions in binder granulation of fine powder. Powder Technology, Vol. 94, 245-258.
    Tegzes, P., Albert, R., Paskvan, M., Barabási, A. L., Vicsek, T., Schiffer, P., 1999. Liquid-induced transitions in granular media. Physical Review E, Vol. 60, 5823-5826.
    Walton, O. R., Braun, R. L., 1986. Stress calculations for assemblies of inelastic spheres in uniform shear. Acta Mechanics, Vol. 63, 73-86.
    Wang, D. G., Campbell, C. S., 1992. Reynolds analogy for a shearing granular materials. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 244, 527-546.
    Warr, S., Jacques, G. T. H., Huntley, J. M., 1994. Tracking the translational and rotational motion of granular particals: use of high-speed for photography and image processing. Powder Technology, Vol. 81, 41-56.
    Yang, S. C., Hsiau, S. S., 2001. The simulation of powders with liquid bridges in a 2D vibrated bed. Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 56, 6837-6849.
    Yang, W. L., Hsiau, S. S., 2005. Wet granular materials in sheared flows. Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 60, 4265-4274.
    Zhang, Y., Cambell, C. S., 1992. The interface between fluid-like and solid-like behaviour in two-dimensional granular flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 237, 541-568.
    Zik, O., Stavans, J., 1991. Self-diffusion in granular flows. Europhysics Letters, Vol. 16, 255-258.
    Advisor
  • Shu-San Hsiau(zT)
  • Files
  • 89343010.pdf
  • approve immediately
    Date of Submission 2005-09-28

    [Back to Results | New Search]


    Browse | Search All Available ETDs

    If you have dissertation-related questions, please contact with the NCU library extension service section.
    Our service phone is (03)422-7151 Ext. 57407,E-mail is also welcomed.