Title page for 88641001


[Back to Results | New Search]

Student Number 88641001
Author Chang-lin Kao(高長霖)
Author's Email Address No Public.
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 2139 times. Download 482 times.
Department Graduate Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Year 2007
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document Doctoral Dissertation
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title Case Study of a Springtime Cold Front in South China
Date of Defense 2008-07-05
Page Count 116
Keyword
  • conditional symmetric instability
  • moist potential vorticity
  • Abstract The PSU/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5) was used to investigate the topographical effect on the structure of a springtime cold front passing East China. The observational analysis shows that the surface frontal system will be retarded and deformed by the topography, when the cold front moves southward to the Wu-I Mountain Range.
    Owing to the surface convergence effect, the cold front experiences a low level frontogenesis process when it climbs up the mountains, and hence induces a strong upward motion. Furthermore, both the mountain gravity wave and the gravity current of cold front, can enhance or weaken the upward motion. These three effects enhence the up/down interlaced pattern of the vertical motion and induces the frontogenesis/frontolysis process along the front through the tilting effect.
    The lifting of the cold front by the mountains favors the moisture in the warm sector to reach saturation. This condition is consistent with the conditional symmetric instability (CSI) theory. Through the analysis of the moist potential vorticity (MPV) , saturation condition and vertical motion, the result shows that the suitable regions for CSI to develop are distributed over the warm side of front band. So, the topographical effect plays an important role in the formation and distribution of CSI in a frontal band.
    Table of Content 中文摘要………………………………………………………………i
    英文摘要………………………………………………………………ii
    誌謝……………………………………………………………………iii
    目錄……………………………………………………………………iv
    圖目錄…………………………………………………………………vi
    符號說明………………………………………………………………xiii
    第一章緒論……………………………………………………………1
    1.1鋒面與地形………………………………………………………1
    1.2條件性對稱不穩定的理論發展…………………………………2
    1.3研究動機………………………………………………………… 5
    第二章研究方法…………………………………………………… 7
    2.1中尺度數值模式………………………………………………… 7
    2.2鋒面不穩定理論………………………………………………… 8
    2.2.1對流不穩定…………………………………………………… 8
    2.2.2慣性不穩定…………………………………………………… 9
    2.2.3對稱不穩定理論……………………………………………… 9
    第三章個案選取…………………………………………………… 14
    3.1個案的綜觀天氣形勢分析………………………………………14
    3.2水氣分析…………………………………………………………16
    第四章個案模擬結果驗證與分析………………………………… 18
    4.1模擬結果驗證……………………………………………………18
    4.1.1海平面、等壓面場……………………………………………18
    4.1.2等壓面上溫度梯度分布(熱力場)……………………………19
    4.1.3垂直相對渦度(動力場)……………………………………20
    4.2模擬結果分析……………………………………………………22
    4.2.1鋒面位置的決定………………………………………………22
    4.2.2鋒面的垂直剖面結構初步分析………………………………23
    4.2.3垂直運動場與水氣分布………………………………………25
    4.3低層鋒面帶附近的運動場特徵…………………………………28
    4.3.1低層鋒面的重力流現象………………………………………28
    4.3.2地形引發的重力波現象………………………………………31
    4.3.3鋒面低層的橫向垂直環流……………………………………32
    第五章鋒面結構的動力演變……………………………………… 34
    5.1鋒生分析…………………………………………………………34
    5.2鋒面橫向垂直次環流……………………………………………36
    5.2.1理論……………………………………………………………36
    5.2.2垂直次環流分析………………………………………………38
    5.3對稱不穩定度分析………………………………………………41
    5.4溼位渦分析………………………………………………………42
    5.4.1等壓面上的MPV分析………………………………………… 43
    5.4.2南北向垂直剖面上的MPV分析……………………………… 45
    第六章結論與展望………………………………………………… 49
    6.1結論………………………………………………………………49
    6.2未來研究展望……………………………………………………50
    參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 51
    附圖………………………………………………………………… 58
    Reference 丁一匯,1991:高等天氣學。氣象出版社(大陸),792頁。
    王建中和丁一匯,1996:一次華北強降雪過程的濕對稱不穩定性研究。中尺度天氣和動力學研究。丁一匯主編,氣象出版社(大陸)。
    吳明進,1992:台灣春雨之長期預報。大氣科學,20,199-216。
    吳國雄,蔡雅萍和唐曉菁,1995:濕位渦和傾斜渦度發展。氣象學報(大陸),53,387-405。
    李振軍和趙思雄,1996:東亞春季強冷鋒結構及其動力學診斷研究。大氣科學(大陸),20,662-672。
    肖慶農和伍榮生, 1996: 重力流冷鋒及其受地形的影響。氣象學報(大陸), 54, 456-465.
    林松錦和王溫和,1992:梅雨鋒面之鋒生過程分析。大氣科學,20,63-79。
    洪秀雄,2006:台灣地區2006年初夏兩次豪雨個案之比較。天氣分析與預報研討論文彙編,1-1~1-19。
    洪景山,2002:武夷山地形和海洋邊界層在梅雨鋒面南下過程中扮演的角色。大氣科學,30,275-290。
    洪甄聲,1998:華南地區鋒面帶條件對稱不穩度的診斷分析。碩士論文,中央大學大氣物理研究所,104pp。
    國立編譯館編訂,1998:氣象學名詞。317頁。
    談哲敏,2000:邊界層鋒面結構與動力學。博士論文,南京大學,184頁。
    簡芳菁和林勝峰,2004:冬季冷鋒個案之數值研究。大氣科學,32,141-160。
    Anthes, R. A., 1977: A cumulus parameterization scheme utilizing a one- dimensional cloud model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 270-286.
    Anthes, R. A. and T. T. Warner, 1978: Development of hydrodynamic models suitable for air pollution and other mesometeorological studies. Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 1045-1078.
    Bannon, P. R., 1983: Quasi-geostrophic frontogenesis over topography. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2266-2277.
    Bennetts, D. A., and B. J. Hoskins, 1979: Conditional symmetric instability - a possible explanation for frontal rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 105, 945-962.
    Bennetts, D. A., and J. C. Sharp, 1982: The relevance of conditional symmetric instability to the prediction of mesoscale frontal rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 108, 595-602.
    Bergeron, T., 1937: On the physics of fronts. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 18, 265-275.
    Berggen, R., 1952: The distribution of temperature and wind connected with active tropical air in the higher troposphere, and tsome remarks concerning clear air turbulence at high altitude. Tellus, 4, 43-53.
    Bjerknes, J. and E. Palmen, 1937: Investigations of selected European cyclones by means of serial ascents. Geofys. Publikasjoner, Norske Videnslcaps- Akad. Oslo, 12, No.2, 1-62.
    Bjerknes, J. and H. Solberg, 1921: Meteorological conditions for the formation of rain. Geophys. Publ., 2, 1-69.
    Bjerknes, J. and H. Solberg, 1922: Life cycle of cyclones and the polar front theory of atmospheric circulation. Geophys. Publ., 3, 1-18.
    Blackadar, A. K., 1976: Modeling the nocturnal boundary layer. Preprints of Third Symposium on Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Quality, Raleigh, NC, 19-22 October 1976, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 46-49.
    Blackadar, A. K., 1979: High resolution models of the planetary boundary layer. Advances in Environmental Science and Engineering, 1, Pfafflin and Ziegler, Eds., Gordon and Breach Publ. Group, Newark, 50-85.
    Bond, N. A. and R. G. Fleagle, 1985: Structure of a cold front over the ocean. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 115, 739-759.
    Browning, K. A., M. E. Hardman, T. W. Harrold, and C. W. Pardoe, 1973: The structure of rainbands within a mid-latitude depression. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 99, 215-231.
    Browning, K. A. and Harrold, T. W., 1970: Air motion and precipitation at a cold front. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 96, 369-389.
    Browning, K. A. and C. W. Pardoe, 1973: Structure of low-level jet streams ahead of mid-latitude cold fronts. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 99, 619-638.
    Byrd, G. P., 1989: A composite analysis of winter season overrunning precipitation bands over the Southern Plains of the United States. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 1119-1132.
    Doswell, C. A. III, 1987: The distinction between large-scale and mesoscale contribution to severe convection: A case study example. Wea. Forecasting, 2, 3-16.
    Ducrocq, V., 1993: Adiabatic and viscous simulations of symmetric instability: structure, evolution, and energetics. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 23-42.
    Dudhia, J., 1993: A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and clod front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 1493-1513.
    Egger, J. and K. P. Hoinka, 1992: Fronts and orography. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 48, 3-36.
    Eliassen, A., 1962: On the vertical circulation in frontal zones. Geophys. Publ., 24, 147-160.
    Emanuel, K. A., 1983: On assessing local conditional symmetric instability from atmospheric soundings. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 2016-2033.
    Emanuel, K. A., 1985: Frontal circulations in the presence of small moist symmetric instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1062-1071.
    Emanuel, K. A., 1988: Observational evidence of slantwise convective adjustment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 1805-1816.
    Emanuel, K. A., 1990: Appendix to chapter 26b: Notes on the physical mechanisms of mesoscale precipitation bands. Radar in Meteorology: Battan Memorial and 40th Anniversary Radar Meteorology Conference. D. Atlas, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 473-476.
    Emanuel, K. A., 1994: Atmospheric Convection. Oxford University Press, 580 pp.
    Fischer, C., and F. Lalaurette, 1995a: Meso-β-scale circulations in realistic fronts. I: Steady basic state. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121, 1255-1283.
    Fischer, C., and F. Lalaurette, 1995b: Meso-β-scale circulations in realistic fronts. II: Frontogenetically forced basic states. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121, 1285-1321.
    Fleagle, R. G., M. Miyake, J. F. Garrett and G. A. McBean, 1982: Storm transfer and response experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 63, 6-14.
    Gall, R. L., R. T. William and T. L. Clark, 1988: Gravity waves generated during frontogenesis. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 2204-2219.
    Grell, G. A., 1993: Prognostic evaluation of assumptions used by cumulus parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 764-787.
    Grell, G. A., J. Dudhia and D. R. Stauffer, 1995: A Description of the Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-398+ STR, 122pp.
    Harrold, T. W., 1973: Mechanism influencing the distribution of prediction within baroclinic disturbances. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 99, 232-251.
    Hobbs, P. V., 1978: Organization and structure of clouds and precipitation on the mesoscale and microscale in cyclonic storms. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 16, 741-755.
    Hobbs, P. V. and P. O. G. Persson, 1982: The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude cyclone. Part V: The substructure of narrow cold-frontal rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 280-295.
    Holton, J. R., 2004: An Introduction to Dynamical Meteorology, 4th ed, Academic Press, 535pp.
    Hoskins, B. J., 1975: The geostrophic momentum approximation and the semi-geostrophic equations. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 233-242.
    Hoskins, B. J. and F. P. Bretherton, 1972: Atmospheric frontogenesis models : mathematical formulation and solution. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 11-37.
    Knight, D. J., and P. V. Hobbs, 1988: The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude cyclones. Part XV: A numerical modeling study of frontogenesis and cold-frontal rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 915-930.
    Kurz, M., 1990: The influence of the Alps on structure and behaviour of cold fronts over Southern Germany. Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 43, 61-68.
    Lean, H. W. and P. A Clark, 2003: The effects of changing resolution on mesoscale modeling of line convection and slantwise circulations in FASTEX IOP16. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 2255-2278.
    Locatelli, J. D., J. E. Martin and P. V. Hobbs, 1994: A wide cold-frontal rainband and its relationship to frontal topography. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 120, 259-275.
    Miller, J. E., 1948: On the concept of frontogenesis. J. Meteorol., 5, 189-171.
    Parsons, D. B., and P. V. Hobbs, 1983: The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude cyclones. XI: Comparisons between observational and theoretical aspects of rainbands. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2377-2397.
    Persson, P. O. G., and T. T. Warner, 1993: Nonlinear hydrostatic conditional symmetric instability: Implications for numerical weather prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 1821-1833.
    Pierrehumbert R. T. and B. Wyman, 1985: Upstream effects of mesoscale mountains. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 977-1003.
    Ralph, F. M., Z. Mazaudier, M. Crochet and S. V. Venkateswaran, 1993: Doppler sodar and radar wind-profiler observations of gravity-wave activity associated with a gravity current. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 444-463.
    Reuter, G. W., and N. Aktary, 1995: Convective and symmetric instabilities and their effects on precipitation: Seasonal variations in central Alberta during 1990 and 1991. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 153-162.
    Reuter, G. W., and M. K. Yau, 1990: Observations of slantwise convective instability in winter cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 447-458.
    Reuter, G. W., and M. K. Yau, 1993: Assessment of slantwise convection in ERICA cyclones. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 375-386.
    Rossby, C. G., 1940: Planetary flow patterns in the atmosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 66, 68-87.
    Sanders, F., and L. F. Bosart, 1985: Mesoscale structure in the Megalopolitan snowstorm of 11-12 February 1983. Part I: Frontogenetical forcing and symmetric instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1050-1061.
    Sawyer, J. S., 1956: The vertical circulation at meteorological fronts and its relation to frontogenesis. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A234, 346-362.
    Schultz, D. M. and P. N. Schumacher, 1999: The use and misuse of conditional symmetric instability. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 2709-2732.
    Seltzer, M. A., R. E. Passarelli, and K. A. Emanuel, 1985: The possible role of symmetric instability in the formation of precipitation bands. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 2207-2219.
    Shapiro, M. A., 1981: Frontogenesis and geostrophically forced secondary circulation in the vicinity of jet stream-frontal zone system. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 954-973.
    Shapiro, M. A., 1984: Meteorological tower measurements of a surface cold front. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 1634-1639.
    Shutts, G. J., 1990: SCAPE charts from numerical weather prediction model fields. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 2745-2751.
    Simpson, J.E., D.A. Mansfield, and J.R. Milford, 1977: Inland penetration of sea breeze fronts. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 103, 47-76.
    Simpson, J. E., 1997: Gravity currents: in the environment and the laboratory. 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, 244pp.
    Smith, R. K. and M. J. Reeder, 1988: On the movement and low-level structure of cold fronts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 1927-1944.
    Thorpe, A. J. and S. A. Clough, 1991: Mesoscale dynamics of cold fronts: structures described by dropsoundings in FRONTS 87. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 117, 903-941.
    Thorpe, A. J., and K. A. Emanuel, 1985: Frontogenesis in the presence of small stability to slantwise convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1809-1824.
    Wakimoto, R. M., 1982: The life cycle of thunderstorm gust fronts as viewed with Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 1060-1082.
    Williams, R. T., M. S. Peng and D. A. Zanofski, 1992: Effects of topography on fronts. J. Atmos. Sci., 49, 287-305.
    Xu, Q., 1989: Frontal circulations in the presence of small viscous moist symmetric stability and weak forcing. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 115, 1325-1353.
    Zehnder, J. A. and P. R. Bannon, 1988: Frontogenesis over a mountaion ridge. J Atmos. Sci., 45, 628-644.
    Zhang, D.-L., and H.-R. Cho, 1995: Three-dimensional simulation of frontal rainbands and conditional symmetric instability in the Eady-wave model. Tellus, 47A, 45-61.
    Advisor
  • Ren-Yow Tzeng(曾仁佑)
  • Huo-ming Jiang(江火明)
  • Files
  • 88641001.pdf
  • approve immediately
    Date of Submission 2008-07-20

    [Back to Results | New Search]


    Browse | Search All Available ETDs

    If you have dissertation-related questions, please contact with the NCU library extension service section.
    Our service phone is (03)422-7151 Ext. 57407,E-mail is also welcomed.