Title page for 88421027


[Back to Results | New Search]

Student Number 88421027
Author Jian-Hau Kang(康嘉豪)
Author's Email Address No Public.
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 2213 times. Download 1379 times.
Department Business Administration
Year 2000
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title 組織慣性、資源存量與專案特性評估對技術取得方式影響之研究
Date of Defense 2001-07-10
Page Count 121
Keyword
  • none
  • Abstract 近來許多學者發現外部技術取得方式所能帶來的績效會比自行研發來得
    低,甚至為負,但實際上向外取得技術的情形在產業內卻十分普遍。本研究由資
    源基礎觀出發,希望能夠針對組織及專案兩大脈絡進行探討,為公司向外取得技
    術之行為尋找一合理之解釋。
    本研究利用產品創新積極度與製程創新積極度兩構面將台灣製造業的公司
    分為「仿禦模仿者」、「製程發展者」、「著重創新者」與「優勢競爭者」等四種技
    術策略類型,將核心資源分為研發資源、製程資源、財務融通資源、行銷資源等
    四種,並檢視不同技術策略類型的公司所擁有的各種存量及三種技術取得方式
    (自行研發、技術授權、合作開發)之頻率是否具有差異,並進行此三者之共變
    異分析,結果發現,公司所擁有的研發資源不足是造成其傾向合作開發的主因,
    而較多的研發資源與行銷資源存量則是造成公司傾向自行研發的主因,而技術授
    權之歷史頻率則不因各種資源存量的不同而有所不同。
    但上述的關係又會因為專案特性的不同而有所不同,本研究發現專案技術取
    得方式會受到資源存量、組織慣性,及專案特性(對風險的評估、對競爭優勢的
    評估,及獨自發展成本)三方面分別影響,其影響效果並會因為不同的技術策略
    類型而有所不同。
    最後,本研究彙總各構念關係之驗證結果,對台灣製造業之技術取得行為做
    較為宏觀之描述,並針對不同技術策略類型之公司及未來研究提出實務上及學術
    上的建議。
    Table of Content 目錄
    第一章緒論.........................................................................................I
    第一節研究背景與動機...........................................................................................1
    第二節研究問題、目的...........................................................................................4
    第三節研究範圍...................................................................................................... 5
    第四節研究流程...................................................................................................... 6
    第二章文獻探討................................................................................7
    第一節技術策略...................................................................................................... 7
    一、技術策略定義.............................................................................................7
    二、技術策略分類構面及其類型..................................................................... 8
    第二節核心資源.................................................................................................... 16
    一、核心資源定義及概念發展....................................................................... 16
    二、核心資源的分類....................................................................................... 18
    第三節技術取得方式............................................................................................. 21
    一、技術取得方式之種類............................................................................... 21
    二、技術取得方式之影響因素....................................................................... 22
    三、影響技術取得與其方式之途徑──理性決策過程............................... 33
    第四節個案研究.................................................................................................... 36
    第三章研究設計..............................................................................38
    第一節觀念架構.................................................................................................... 38
    第二節變數定義與衡量......................................................................................... 39
    一、技術策略及其類型................................................................................... 39
    二、資源存量................................................................................................... 41
    三、技術取得方式卅技術來源....................................................................... 42
    四、對專案技術特性的評估........................................................................... 42
    第三節研究假設.................................................................................................... 44
    一、技術競爭策略與組織技術取得方式之關係........................................... 44
    二、技術策略類型之資源存量之關係........................................................... 45
    三、資源存量與組織技術取得方式之關係................................................... 46
    四、資源之中介角色....................................................................................... 47
    五、組織技術取得方式與專案技術取得方式之關係................................... 47
    六、專案特性評估技術取得方式之關係....................................................... 48
    第四節研究對象與問卷回收................................................................................. 50
    第五節資料分析方法............................................................................................. 51
    第六節信度效度分析............................................................................................. 53
    第四章研究結果與分析.................................................................54
    第一節樣本基本資料分析..................................................................................... 54
    第二節技術策略類型與技術取得方式之關係....................................................... 56
    一、技術策略因素分析................................................................................... 56
    二、技術策略類型集群分析........................................................................... 57
    三、技術策略類型與專案績效滿意度分析................................................... 58
    四、技術策略類型對技術取得方式之ANOVA 分析................................... 58
    五、特定取得方式之不同技術策略類型間比較........................................... 59
    六、特定技術策略類型之不同方式間比較................................................... 61
    七、本節小結................................................................................................... 61
    第三節資源之中介角色......................................................................................... 64
    一、核心資源因素分析................................................................................... 64
    二、各技術策略類型對資源因素ANOVA 分析........................................... 65
    三、資源存量與技術取得方式之關係........................................................... 68
    四、資源存量中介關係ANCOVA 分析........................................................ 68
    五、本節小結................................................................................................... 69
    第四節慣性效果.................................................................................................... 72
    本節小結........................................................................................................... 73
    第五節資源與技術取得慣性之關係...................................................................... 74
    一、資源存量對專案技術取得方式之關係................................................... 74
    二、自行研發歷史與合作開發歷史之中介角色........................................... 75
    三、本節小結................................................................................................... 75
    第六節專案特性對專案技術取得方式之影響....................................................... 77
    一、以所有樣本進行分析............................................................................... 77
    二、各技術策略類型之專案技術取得方式影響因素................................... 78
    三、本節小結................................................................................................... 82
    第七節本章小結.................................................................................................... 85
    第五章結論與建議.........................................................................86
    第一節研究結論...................................................................................................... 1
    一、技術策略類型、資源存量與組織技術取得方式之關係.........................1
    二、專案技術取得方式之影響因素................................................................. 2
    第二節研究建議...................................................................................................... 5
    一、給防禦模仿者的建議.................................................................................5
    二、給製程發展者的建議.................................................................................5
    三、給著重創新者的建議.................................................................................5
    四、給優勢競爭者的建議.................................................................................6
    五、給政府的建議.............................................................................................6
    第三節研究限制...................................................................................................... 7
    第四節後續研究建議............................................................................................... 8
    參考文獻................................................................................................9
    附錄一個案訪談資料..................................................................... 15
    個案一A公司........................................................................................................ 15
    個案二B公司........................................................................................................ 17
    個案三C 科技公司................................................................................................. 19
    個案四D公司........................................................................................................ 21
    附錄二研究問卷............................................................................109
    Reference 參考文獻
    一、中文部份
    1. 尹啟銘、司徒達賢、黃俊英(民78),「產品創新自由度、企業策略與技術政策之關
    係-台灣資訊電子業實證研究」,管理評論,頁73-98。
    2. 司徒達賢(民84),「資源基礎理論與企業競爭優勢關係之探討」,行政院國家科學
    委員會專題研究計劃成果報告。
    3. 司徒達賢、賴士葆、洪鉛財(民83),「技術取得策略影響因素分析」,1994 產業科
    技研究發展管理實務案例暨論文研討會,經濟部技術處,頁7-8。
    4. 吳思華(民87),「策略九說-策略思考的本質」,臉譜文化事業股份有限公司。
    5. 李勇達(民85),「技術取得方式的策略訂定」,清華大學工業工程研究所未出版之
    碩士論文。
    6. 李靜芳(民89),「以購併方式取得技術之策略決策與尋找檢視」,元智大學管理研
    究所八十八年度未出版碩士論文。
    7. 林武質(民89),「以企業內外部因素探討技術策略對新產品績效影響之研究—以台
    灣資訊電子業為例」,中原大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。
    8. 林彥廷(民87),「台灣高科技產業技術取得策略之研究-以半導體、電腦及周邊製
    造業為例」,成功大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
    9. 林晉寬(民84),「從資源基礎理論探討資源特性與成長策略之關係」,政治大學企
    業管理研究所博士論文。
    10. 長谷川慶太郎著•汪仲譯(民87),亞洲金融風暴,時報文化,台北。
    11. 洪德芳(民84),「高科技企業技術策略與行銷策略配合對新產品發展績效關係影響
    之研究」,中原大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。
    12. 胡定華(民75),「科技自主發展的關鍵任務:中興以人才為本」,中美技術季刊,
    第31 卷第3 期,頁25-26。
    13. 翁明祥(民78),「技術創新政策與事業經營策略的配合,對技術創新績效之影響-
    台灣合成樹脂業實證研究」,國立政治大學企業管理研究所未出版博士論文。
    14. 耿筠(民86),「高科技產業經理人購買技術行為之研究-以新竹科學工業原區經
    理人為例」,國立中山大學企業管理學系研究所未出版博士論文。
    15. 張秀屏(民89),自創品牌策略、核心資源類型對品牌權益績效關係之研究-國際化
    企業策略聯盟之實證,中原大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。
    16. 張昭仁(民83),研究發展管理:理論與案例。台北:翰蘆出版社。
    17. 張淮杞(民82),「技術政策與新產品發展績效關係之研究」,中原大學企業管理研
    究所論文。
    18. 許仁竤(民88),「技術取得方式之決定與理性決策理論-台灣網路廠商之個案研
    究」,中央大學企業管理研究所未出版碩士論文。
    19. 許瓊文(民83),「研究機構落實程序之研究」,交通大學管理科學研究所未出版博
    士論文。
    20. 馮震宇(民84),技術移轉之類型及其比較,工業財產權與標準,1995 年2 月。
    21. 黃寬模(民79),「高科技產業技術策略研究—以資訊電子業為例」,中山大學企業
    管理研究所論文。
    22. 劉泰英,吳榮義(民79),我國民營企業科技技術引進與技術普及管道之探討,台
    北:台灣經濟研究院,1990 年6 月。
    23. 劉常勇(民86),「科技產業-投資經營與競爭策略」,華泰書局,台北。
    24. 薛琦、梁秀輝(民87),「我國產業的技術移轉與技術發展」,中美技術季刊,第32
    卷第4 期,89-90 頁。
    二、英文部份
    1. Abernathy, William J., and James M. Utterback. (1978)”Patterns of Industrial Innovation”,
    Technology Review, June-July.
    2. Adler, P.S., “Technology Strategy: A Guide to the Literatures”, in R.S. Rosenbloom eds., Research
    on Technological Innovation, Management and Policy, JAI Press Inc., 4:25-151. England:
    Penguin,1974.
    3. Amit, R. and J. Paul J. H. Schoemaker (1993), "Strategic Assets and Organizational Rent",
    Strategic Management Journal , 14(1), pp. 33-46.
    4. Anderson, P., and Tushman, M.L. (1991). “Managing through cycles of technological change”,
    Research-Technology Management, May-June, pp. 26-31
    5. Andrew, K.R. (1971), The Concept of Corporate Strategy: An Analytic Approach to Business
    Policy for Growth and Expansion. IL: Irwin Homewood.
    6. Ansoff, H.I., Corporate Strategy, McGraw-Hill, New York,1965.
    7. Ansoff, I. and Steward,I. M.(1967), “Strategies for a Technology Based Business”, Harvard
    Business Review, pp.71-83,Nov.-Dec.
    8. Ansoff,H.I. and E.Mcdonnel, Implanting Strategic Management, Prentice-Hall(UK), 1990.
    9. Ansolf, H. Ingo and Steward, J.M. (1967),“Strategies for a Technology-Based Business”, Harvard
    Business Review, Nov-dec : pp.81-93.
    10. Atuahene-Gima, K.(1992), “Inward Technology Licensing as an Alternative to Internal R&D in
    New Product Development:A Conceptual Framework,” Journal Of Production Innovation
    Management, 9,pp.156-167
    11. Bailey, W. J. , Masson, R. and Raeside R.(1998), “Choosing Successful Technology
    Development Partners:A Best-Practice Model, ”International Journal Of Technology Management,
    15(1/2), pp.124-138
    12. Barnard, C. L.(1938), "The Functions of the Executive", Cambridge, Mass:Harvard University
    Press.
    13. Barney, J. B.(1986), "Strategic Factor Markets:Expectations, Luck, and Business Strategy",
    Management Science,42, 1986,pp.1231-1241.
    14. Barney, J. B.(1991), "Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage", Journal of
    Management, 17, pp.99-120.
    15. Bitondo, D. and Frohman, A. (1981), “linking Technological and Business Planning“, Research
    Management, November :21,.
    16. Bitondo,D. and Froham,A.(1981), Linking Technological and Business Planning, Research
    Management, l(24), pp.19-23
    17. Brockhoff, K. and Chakrabarti, A.K. (1988),“ R&D/Marketing Linkage and Innovation Strategy:
    Some West German Experience”, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management,
    35(3) :167-174.
    18. Brockhoff, K.and Pearson, A. (1992), “Technical and marketing Aggressiveness and The
    Effectiveness of R&D”, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 9(4):318-324.
    19. Chandler, A. D. (1992), Organizational Capabilities and the Economic History of the Industrial
    Enterprise, Journal of Economic Perspectives, .6(3), pp79-100.
    20. Chandler, A.D. (1962). “Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial
    Enterprise”, Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.
    21. Chandler, Algred D. Jr. (1990), “Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism”,
    Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard Unibersity Press.
    22. Chatterjee, S. and B. Wernerfelt (1991), "The Link Between Resources and Type of
    Diversification:Theory and Evidence", Strategic Management Journal, 12, pp.33-48.
    23. Collis, D.J. and C. A. Montgomery, (1995), ”Competing on Resources:Strategy in 1990s“,
    Harvard Business Review, Jul./Aug., pp.49-68.
    24. Collis, D.J.(1991), "A Resources-based Analysis of Global Competition:The Case of the Bearing
    Industry", Strategic Management Journal, 12(Summer), pp.49-68.
    25. Coyne, K.P. (1986), “Sustainable Competitive Advantage: What it is and What it isn’t”, Business
    Horizons, Jan/Feb., pp.54-61
    26. Danila N. (1989), “Strategic Evalution and Selection of R&D Project”, R&D Management, 19,
    pp.47-62.
    27. Diericky, I. and K. Cool. (1989), "Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive
    advantage", Management Science, 35, pp.1504-1551.
    28. Duysters, G , Hagedoorn, J. (2000),”Core competences and company performance in the
    World-Wide Computer Industry”, The Journal High Technology Management Research, 11,
    pp75-91.
    29. Foil, C. M. (1991), “Managing Culture as a Competitive Resource: An Identity-Based View of
    Sustainable Competitive Advantage”, Journal of Management, 17, pp.191-211
    30. Ford, D. (1988), Develop Your Technology Strategy,” Long Range Planning, 21(1), pp.85-95
    31. Foster, R. (1986), Innovation: The Attacker’s Advantage. New York: Summit Books.
    32. Granstrand, Ove, Eric Bohlin, Christer Oskarsson and Niklas Sjoberg(1992) “External Technology
    Acquisition in Large Multi-Technologt Corporations,” R&D Management, 22, pp112-115.
    33. Grnat. R.M.(1991), "The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage:Implications for
    Strategy Formulation", California Management Review, Spring, pp.114-135.
    34. Hagedoorn, J.(1993), “Understanding The Rationale Of Strategic Technology Partnering:
    Interorganizational Modes Of Cooperation And Sectoral Differences,” Strategic Management
    Journal, 14, pp.371-385
    35. Hagedoorn, J.(1995), “Research Notes And Communications A Note On International Market
    Leaders And Networks Of Strategic Technology Partnering, “ Strategic Management Jounal, 16,
    pp.241-250
    36. Hall, R.(1992), "The Strategic Analysis of Intangible Resources", Strategic Management Journal,
    13(2), Feb, pp.135-144.
    37. Hamel, G. & C.K. Prahalad (1994),"Competing for the future - breakthrough strategies for seizing
    control of your industry and creating the markets of tomorrow", Harvard Business School.
    38. Haour, G.(1992), “Stretching the Knowledge -Base of the Enterprise Through Contract
    Research,” R&D Management, 22(2), pp.177-182
    39. Harrigan, K. R.(1988), “Joint Ventures and Competitive Strategy,” Strategic Management
    Journal, 9(2), pp.141-158
    40. Hayes R.H. &Wheelwright S.C. (1984), "Restoring Our Competitive Edge: Competitive Through
    Manufacturing" ,John Wiley and Sons.
    41. Hitt, M. A. & R. D. Ireland (1985), "Corporate Distinctive Competence, Strategy, Industry and
    Performance," Strategic Management Journal, 6, pp.273-293.
    42. Hofer, C. W. & Schendel, D. E. (1978), Strategy Formulation: Analytical Concepts, Eds by St. Paul,
    Minn: West Publishing,.
    43. Itami, H. & T. Roehl(1987), "Mobilizing Invisible Assets", Harvard University Press,
    Cambridge ,MA.
    44. Kurokawa, S.(1997), “Make-or-Buy Decisions in R&D:Small Technology Based Firms in the
    United States and Japan, IEEE Transactions On Engineering Management, 44(2), pp.124-134
    45. Lado, Augustine, Nancy G. Boyd, & Susan C. Hanlon (1997), "Competition, Cooperation, and the
    Search for Economic Rents: A Syncretic Model," Academy of Management Review, 22(1), January,
    pp.110-141.
    46. Lambe, J.C., and Spekman, R.E.(1997),"Alliances, external technology acquisition,
    anddiscontinuous technological change." Journal of Product Innovation Management 14, pp.
    102-116
    47. Lee, M. and Om, K.(1994), “ A Conceptual Framework Of Technological Innovation
    Management,” Technovation, 14(1), pp.7-16.
    48. Leonard-Barton, D. (1992), "Core Capabilities and Core Rigidities: A Paradox in Managing New
    Product Development", Strategic Management Journal, 13, pp.111-125
    49. Leonard, D. (1995), "Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and sustaining the sources of innvation",
    Harvard Business School Press
    50. Maidique, M.A. and A.L. Frevola Jr.(1988) ”Technology Strategy” Strategic Management of
    Technology and Innovation, IRWIN, Homewood, pp.233-235.
    51. Markides , C. C. and P. J. Williamson(1994), "Related Diversification, Core Competence and
    Corporate Performance", Strategic Management Journal, 15, Sum., pp.149-165.
    52. Martin, J.C. Michael. (1984), Managing Technological Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Reston,
    Virginia: Reston Pulbishing Company, Inc.
    53. Miles, R.E. and Snow, C.C, Organizational strategy, structure, and Process, New
    York:McGraw-Hill,1978.
    54. Miller,D. and Friesen,P.H, (1982),“Innovation in Conservaative and Entrepreurial Firms:Two
    models of strategy Momentum”, Strategic Manage.J., 1982(3):1-25.
    55. Noori, Hamid (1990),"Managing the Dynamics of New Technology", Pentice-Hall, Englewood
    Cliffs, p143-157.
    56. Padillo, J.M. and Diaby M. (1999), ”A Multiple-Criteria Decision Methodology for the Make-or
    Buy Problem”, International Journal of Production Research, 37(14), pp. 3203-3229
    57. Parkhe, A.(1991), “Interfirm Diversity, Organizational Learning, and Longevity In Global
    Strategic Alliance,” Journal of International Business Studies, 22(4), pp. 579-601
    58. Pavit, K.( 1991), "Key Characteristics of the Large Innovating Firm", British Journal of
    Management, 2 pp.41-50.
    59. Porter, M.E(1985)., Competive Addvantage, Prentic-Hall.
    60. Prabhu, G. N. (1999) "Implementing university-industry joint product innovation projects",
    Technovation, 19, pp.495-505
    61. Prahalad C. K. and G. Hame (1990), "The Core Competence of the Corporation", Harvard
    Business Review, 68(3), May/Jun, pp.79-91.
    62. Robert, E. and Berry, C.(1985), “Entering New Business:Selecting Strategies for Success,” Sloan
    Management Review, Spring, pp.3-17
    63. Rogers, Everett M., & Shoemaker, F. Floyd (1971). Communication of Innovations, NY: The Free
    Press.
    64. Selznick, Philip(1957), Leadership in Administration:A Sociological Interpretation, Row, petersion
    and company.
    65. Shepherd, D. A., Mcdermott, C., & Stock, G.N. (2000), "Advanced Manufacturing Technology:
    Does More Radicalness Mean More Perceived Benefits?" The Journal of High Technology
    Management Research, 11, pp.19-33.
    66. Sherman, J.D., Souder W.E., & Jenssen S.A. (2000), "Differential Effects of the Primary Forms of
    Cross Functional Integration on Product Development Cycle Time", Journal of Product Innovation
    Management 17, pp.257-265
    67. Sivadas E., & Dwyer F.R. (2000), "An Examination of Organizational Factors Influencing New
    Product Success in Internal and Alliance-Based Processes", The Journal of Marketing 64,pp.31-49.
    68. Snow C. C. and L. G. Hrebiniak (1980)“ Strategy, Distinctive Comopetence, and Organizational
    Performance.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 25, pp.317-336.
    69. Snow, C. C. and R. E. Miles (1983). "The Role of Strategy in the Development of a General Theory
    if Organizations." In R. Lamb (Ed.), Advances in Strategic Management, .2, p231-259
    70. Stalk, C., Evans, P., & Shulman, L. E. (1992),"Competing on capabilities: The new rules of
    corporate strategy." Harvard Business Review, 70(2), 57-69.
    71. Stalk, George (1992), "Time-based Competitive and Beyond: Competing on Capabilities,"
    Planning Review, 20(5), pp. 27-29.
    72. Steensma H.K., & Fairbank J.F. (1999), "Internalizing External Technology: A Model of
    Governance Mode Choice And An Empirical Assessment" The Journal of High Technology
    Management Research, 10(1), pp.1-35.
    73. Stock, G.N. & Tatikonda, M.V., (2000). "A typology of project-level technology transfer processes",
    Journal of Operations Management, 18(6), pp.719-737
    74. Stoner, C.R. (1987), "Distinctive Competence and Competitive Advantage", Journal of Small
    Business Management, 25(2), pp.33-39.
    75. Tampoe, M. (1994), "Exploiting the Core Competences of Your Organization", Long Ranage
    Planning, 27(4), pp.66-77.
    76. Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organization in Action. NY: McGraw-Hill.
    77. Tidd, J. and Trewhella, M. J.(1997), "Organizaional And Technological Antecedents For
    Knowledge Acquisition And Learning," R&D Management, 27(4), pp.359-375
    78. Tilles, S. (1963), "How to Evaluate Corporate Strategy", Harvard Business Review, Jul/ Aug.,
    pp.112-121。
    79. Tyler, B.B. (1995),“Evaluating Technological Collaborative Opportunities:A Cognitive Modeling
    Perspective,” Strategic Management Journal, 16, pp.43-70
    80. Ulrich, D. & D. Lake (1990), Organizational Capability: Competing from the Inside Out, New
    York: John Wiley & Sons Publishing.
    81. Ulrich, D. and M. F. Wiersema (1989), "Gaining Strategic and Organizational Capability in a
    Turbulent Business Environment", Academy of Management Executive, 3(2), pp.115-123.
    82. Utterback, J.M.(1994),Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation, Boston: Harvard Business School
    Press.
    83. Verdin, P.K. & R.J. Williamson (1992), "Core Competence, Competitive Advantage and Industry
    Structure", INSEAD, Nov, pp.19-21.
    84. Vesper, K. (1979),”Strategic Mapping-A Tool for Corporate Planners,” Long Range Planning,
    12(4),pp.75-92
    85. Walsh, J. P. (1984), "Organizational Memory, Academy of the Firm", Strategic Management
    Journal, 5, pp.171-180
    86. Wernerfelt, Birger, (1984) “A Resource-based View of the Firm “,Strategic Management Journal, 5,
    pp.171-180.
    87. Winter, S. (1987), Knowledge and Competence as Strategic Assets, In D.J.
    88. Teece, The Competitive Challenge, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA, 1987,pp..163-180.
    89. Yang X., Taylor M., & Stoltenberg C. (1999), "Assessing the Effects of Structural and Project
    Characteristics on R&D Strategic Alliance Performance: A Unified Approach", The Journal of
    High Technology Management Research 10(1), pp.105-121.
    Advisor
  • Ming-ji Lin(林明杰)
  • Files
  • 88421027.pdf
  • approve immediately
    Date of Submission 2001-07-10

    [Back to Results | New Search]


    Browse | Search All Available ETDs

    If you have dissertation-related questions, please contact with the NCU library extension service section.
    Our service phone is (03)422-7151 Ext. 57407,E-mail is also welcomed.