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Student Number 86322047
Author Zhi Ren(梁至仁)
Author's Email Address No Public.
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 835 times. Download 5 times.
Department Civil Engineering
Year 1998
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title Bearing Capacity of Layered Formations
Date of Defense
Page Count 187
Keyword
  • bearing capacity
  • clay overlying sandstone
  • layered formations
  • sandstone overlying clay
  • Abstract Under the natural condition, the ground usually sedimented in layered formation. In layered formations, when the depth of the upper layer is relatively large than the width of the foundation, the bearing capacity can be evaluated by the strength characteristic of the upper layer. However, when the upper layer is not deep enough, which is relative to the width of the foundation, or the effect ranges to two different kinds of soil layers, we'll have to make some corrections to evaluate the bearing capacity of the layered formations. This thesis continues the topic of thin layer sand underlying weak clay layer. Besides a strip footing on layered formation, instances clay overlying sandstone and sandstone overlying clay, this thesis deals with the bearing capacity of clay and sandstone. The topic of bearing capacity has been studied through experiments and numerical analyses (finite difference methods, FLAC program). A series of the model tests was performed with the usage of a rigid footing to approximate natural condition. In another aspect, we can also observe the failure modes of foundation. The test results will be compared with numerical analyses.
    The test results of clay and clay overlying sandstone are close to the FLAC analyses. Although the model test results of sandstone are different from the most of the theoretical methods, they are quiet close to upper bounds method (Chen and Drucker (1969)), plasticity equilibrium methods (Ladanyi (1968), Sowers (1979), Pells (1980), Wyllie (1992)) may be appropriate. The empirical method of Satyanarayana and Garg (1980) has a more accurate prediction of the results of sandstone overlying clay. This thesis has been studied through parametric study and the results have been charted. For practice purpose, the bearing capacity of rock overlying clay can be easily evaluated by the strength characteristic of the upper layer and use design chart to get the bearing capacity factor .
    Table of Content 第一章 緒論1
    1.1 研究動機1
    1.2 研究架構3
    1.3 本文內容3
    第二章 淺基礎承載力相關研究6
    2.1 土壤承載理論7
     2.1.1 淺基礎破壞模式7
     2.1.2 Prandtl(1921)極限承載力理論9
     2.1.3 Terzaghi(1943)極限承載力理論10
     2.1.4 Meyerhof(1951)極限承載力理論13
     2.1.5 Balla(1962)極限承載力理論14
    2.2 岩石承載行為15
     2.2.1 評估岩盤強度15
     2.2.2 岩石基礎破壞模式21
    2.3 完整岩石基礎承載力24
     2.3.1 地方建築規範24
     2.3.2 Hill(1950)極限分析法25
     2.3.3 Ladanyi(1968)塑性平衡法26
     2.3.4 Chen & Drucker(1969)極限分析27
     2.3.5 Chen(1975)極限分析法30
     2.3.6 Sowers(1979)塑性平衡法30
     2.3.7 Pells(1980)塑性平衡法32
    2.4 非完整岩石基礎承載力32
     2.4.1 RQD折減法32
     2.4.2 Wyllie塑性平衡法32
    2.5 層狀地層承載理論33
     2.5.1 Terzaghi & Peck(1948)荷載傳遞法33
     2.5.2 Siva Reddy & Srinivasan(1967)雙層黏性土壤承載力34
     2.5.3 Meyerhof(1974)極限平衡法39
     2.5.4 Meyerhof & Hanna(1978)極限平衡法41
     2.5.5 Satyanarayana & Garg(1980)經驗式44
     2.5.6 Bowels(1988)基礎分析與設計47
     2.5.7 柔性樑在Winkler基礎方法求解承載力問題49
    2.6 沉陷量分析50
     2.6.1 一般地層沉陷量估算51
     2.6.2 層狀地層沉陷量估算52
    第三章 實驗規劃55
    3.1 試驗材料55
     3.1.1 試驗土樣55
     3.1.2 木山層砂岩55
    3.2 試驗儀器及相關設備55
     3.2.1 100噸岩石壓力機55
     3.2.2 材料試驗機56
     3.2.3 基礎承載試驗箱57
     3.2.4 三軸圍壓系統59
     3.2.5 岩石鑽修設備59
     3.2.6 岩石直剪試驗機59
     3.2.7 量測系統59
    3.3 基本力學性質實驗60
     3.3.1 岩石單壓強度試驗60
     3.3.2 巴西人抗張試驗60
     3.3.3 三軸壓縮試驗60
     3.3.4 簡支樑三分點荷重法測定抗彎強度試驗61
    3.4 基礎承載模型製作62
     3.4.1 均質黏土試體之製作62
     3.4.2 均質砂岩試體之製作64
     3.4.3 黏土層在砂岩之上試體之製作64
     3.4.4 砂岩在黏土層之上試體之製作65
    3.5 基礎承載試驗方法65
     3.5.1 淺基礎模型試驗65
     3.5.2 無圍壓縮試驗與含水量量測65
    第四章  試驗結果及數值分析67
    4.1 試驗材料基本參數67
     4.1.1 土壤基本參數67
     4.1.2 木山層砂岩基本性質70
    4.2 基礎模型承載研究79
     4.2.1 黏性土層之極限承載力80
     4.2.2 砂岩之極限承載力86
     4.2.3 黏土層在砂岩之上極限承載力94
     4.2.4 砂岩在黏土層之上極限承載力105
    4.3 數值分析128
     4.3.1 數值模型模擬129
     4.3.2 岩層在黏土層上之設計圖表148
    第五章 結論與建議157
    5.1 結論157
    5.2 建議159
    參考文獻160
    附錄A 基礎試驗箱尺寸決定164
    附錄B 砂岩在黏土層之上承載力設計圖表167
    B.1 承載力因素計算結果167
    B.2 基腳寬度影響167
    B.3 適用範圍168
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    2. 黃哲君,「層狀土壤之基礎承載力」,碩士論文,國立中央大學土木工程研究所,中壢 (1998)。
    3. 鄭富書,「軟弱岩盤承載行為研究(Ⅰ)」,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告,台北 (1994)。
    4. 鄭富書,「軟弱岩盤承載行為研究(Ⅱ)」,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告,台北 (1995)。
    5. Balla, A., "Bearing Capacity of Foundations," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, Proceedings, ASCE, Vol. 88,   No. SM5, pp.13~34 (1962).
    6. Bowles, J.E., Foundation Analysis and Design, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York (1988).
    7. Burd, H.J. and S. Frydman, "Bearing Capacity of Plane-strain Footing on Layered Soils," Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 34, No. 2, pp.241~253   (1997).
    8. Chen, W.F. and D.C. Drucker, "Bearing Capacity of Concrete Blocks or Rock," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations   Division, Proceedings, ASCE, Vol. 95, No. EM2, pp.955~978 (1969).
    9. Chen, W.F. and William O. McCarron, "Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations," in Foundation Engineering Handbook, Chapter 4,   Ed. By Fang, Hsai-Yang, 2nd Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp.144~165 (1990).
    10. Chen, W.F., Limit Analysis and Soil Plasticity, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1975).
    11. Cook, N.G.W. and M. Hood, and F. Tsai, "Observations of Crack Growth in Hard Rock Loaded by an Indenter," Int. J. Rock Mech.   Mining Sci., Vol. 21, No. 2, pp.97~107 (1984).
    12. Couetdic, J.M. and K. Baeeon, "Plate-load Testing as a Method of Assessing the In-situ Strength Properties of Western Canadian Coal,"   Int. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci., Vol. 12, pp.303~310 (1975).
    13. Das, Braja M. Principal of Geotechnical Engineering, 3rd Edition PWS, Boston (1994).
    14. FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua, Volume 1: User's Manual, Itasca Consulting Group Inc., USA (1993).
    15. FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua, Volume 2: Verification Problems and Example Applications, Itasca Consulting Group    Inc., USA (1993).
    16. FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua, Volume 3: Appendices, Itasca Consulting Group Inc., USA (1993).
    17. Goodman, R. E. Introduction to Rock Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1980).
    18. Hanna, A.M. and G.G. Meyerhof, "Experimental Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Footing Subjected to Inclined Loads," Can.   Geotech. J., Vol. 18, No. 2, pp.599~603 (1981).
    19. Hanna, A.M. and G.G. Meyerhof, "Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Foundations on a Three-layer Soil with Special Reference to Layered   Sand," Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 16, No. 2, pp.412~414 (1979).
    20. Hoek, E. and E. T. Brwon, "Practical Estimates of Rock Mass Strength," Int. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci., Vol. 34, No. 8,   pp.1165~1186 (1997).
    21. Hoek, E., "Estimating Mohr-Coulomb Friction and Cohesion Values from the Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion," Int. J. Rock Mech.   Mining Sci., Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.227~229 (1990).
    22. Holtz, R.O., "Stress Distribution and Settlement of Shallow Foundations," in Foundation Engineering Handbook, Chapter 5, Ed. By   Fang, Hsai-Yang, 2nd Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp.166~222 (1990).
    23. ISRM, Rock Characterization Testing and Monitoring, Ed. By Brown, E.T., Pergamon Press, Oxford (1981).
    24. Ko, Hon Yim and Luther W., "Bearing Capacity of Footings in Plane Strain," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division,   Proceedings, ASCE, Vol. 99, No. SM1, pp.1~23 (1973).
    25. Meyerhof, G.G., "Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Footings on Sand Layer overlying Clay," Can. Geotech. J., Vol. 11, No. 2,   pp.223~229 (1974).
    26. Miscevic, P. and I. Jasarevic, "Bearing Capacity of Foundation on Rock Mass with Weak Layer," in Rock Foundation, Ed. By   Yoshinaka, Ryunoshin, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 333~336 (1995).
    27. Pang, S.S. and W. Goldsmith, "Investigation of Crack Formation during Loading of Brittle Rock," Rock Mechanics and Rock   Engineering, Vol. 23, pp.53~63 (1990).
    28. Pells, P.J.N. and R.M. Turner, "Endbearing on Rock with Particular Reference to Sandstone," International Conference on Structural   Foundations on Rock, Sydney, pp.181~190 (1980).
    29. Poulos, H.G. and E.H. Davis, Elastic Solutions for Soil and Rock Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1974).
    30. Ramiah, B.K. and L.S. Chickanagappa, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, 2nd Edition, Balkema, Rotterdam (1990).
    31. Reddy, A. S. and R. J. Srinivasan, "Bearing Capacity of Footings on Layered Clays," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations   Division, Proceedings, ASCE, Vol. 93, No. SM2, pp.83~99 (1967).
    32. Roark, Raymond J., Formulas for Stress And Strain, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York (1954).
    33. Satyanarayana, B. and R. K. Garg, "Bearing Capacity of Footings on Layered c-f Soils," Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering     Division, Proceedings, ASCE, Vol. 106, No. GT7, pp.819~824 (1980).
    34. Scott, R.F., Foundation Analysis, Prentice-Hill, New Jersey (1981).
    35. Sowers George F., Introductory Soil Mechanics And Foundation, 4th Edition, Macmillan, New York (1979).
    36. Terzaghi, K. and R.B. Peck, Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1967).
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    38. Vesic, A.S., "Analysis of Ultimate Loads of Shallow Foundations," Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division,    Proceedings, ASCE, Vol. 99, No. SM1, pp.45~73 (1973).
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  • (田永銘)
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