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Student Number 86321026
Author Si-Jhang Syu(許習彰)
Author's Email Address No Public.
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Department Chemical and Materials Engineering
Year 1998
Semester 2
Degree Master
Type of Document Master's Thesis
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title
Date of Defense
Page Count 1
Keyword
  • electrolysis-electrodialysis
  • quaternization
  • tetrabutylammonium chloride
  • tetrabutylammonium iodide
  • Abstract
    Table of Content 目 錄
    摘要.............................................................................................................................I
    目錄............................................................................................................................II
    圖目錄.......................................................................................................................III
    表目錄........................................................................................................................IV
    符號說明...................................................................................................................V
    第一章緒論
    1-1鹵化四級銨鹽之性質.......................................................................................1
    1-2鹵化四級銨鹽之合成方法...............................................................................2
    1-2-1碘化四級銨鹽之合成方法.........................................................................2
    1-2-2氯化四級銨鹽之合成方法.........................................................................3
    1-2-3其它鹵化四級銨鹽之合成方法.................................................................4
    1-3鹵化四丁基銨鹽之應用....................................................................................4
    . 1-3-1當相轉移催化劑..........................................................................................5
    1-3-2其他重要的用途...........................................................................................6
    1-4電解-電透析之簡介............................................................................................7
    1-4-1電透析之濃縮-淡化過程..........................................................................7
    1-4-2電透析之應用................................................................................................7
    1-4-3對於電解-電透析之合成..........................................................................9
    1-4-4季銨氫氧化物非電解-電透析之合成...................................................11
    1-5本文的動機與主旨............................................................................................12
    第二章 理論部分
    2-1二分子親核取代反應之速率方程式…………………………………… 14
    2-2溶劑對季化反應之效應………………………………………………… 16
    2-3由阿瑞尼亞定律解釋溫度對反應速率常數之影響………………… 16
    2-4電解-電透析之流程........................................................................................17
    2-5通量方程式與電極間之電位梯度...................................................................17
    2-6通電初態為Anodeo/QI,C2H5OH HCl,H2O/Cathode
    系統之濃度分佈示意圖.....................................................................................21
    2-7平衡極電位與電荷轉移過電程........................................................................23
    2-7-1平衡極電位....................................................................................................23
    2-7-2電荷轉移過電壓......................................................................................... ..25
    2-8擴散電位................................................................................................................26
    2-9歐姆電位降........................................................................................................... 26
    2-10 Donnan potential....................................................................................................27
    2-11濃度偏極化..........................................................................................................28
    2-12系統外加電壓方程式.........................................................................................28
    2-13電流效率、電壓效率及電能消耗與無因次操作變數群之關係式
    .................................................................................................................................29
    第三章 實驗部分
    3-1實驗及分析用藥品......................................................................................... .....34
    3-2實驗裝置及分析儀器.......................................................................................... 35
    3-2-1實驗裝置...........................................................................................................35
    3-2-2電導度計...........................................................................................................37
    3-2-3離子層析儀.......................................................................................................37
    3-3樣品分析..................................................................................................................38
    3-3-1電導度計的分析...............................................................................................38
    3-3-1.1陽極室Q+分析.............................................................................................38
    3-3-1.2陰極室Q+分析.............................................................................................38
    3-3-2離子層析儀(IC)之校正曲線及樣品分析....................................................39
    3-4實驗步驟....................................................................................................................40
    3-4-1碘化四丁基銨鹽的製備....................................................................................40
    3-4-1.1溶劑的選定...................................................................................................40
    3-4-1.2溶劑劑量效應對Bu3N+BuI -------> Bu4NI之影響...................................40
    3-4-1.3溫度對反應Bu3N+BuI -------> Bu4NI之影響...........................................41
    3-4-2極限電流密度的測定.........................................................................................41
    3-4-3陰極液濃度對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響.............................41
    3-4-4陽極液濃度對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響.............................42
    3-4-5電流密度對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響..................................42
    3-4-6陰極液流速對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響..............................42
    3-4-7陽極液流速對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響..............................43
    3-4-8電解槽隔室寬度對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響
    ......................................................................................................................................43
    第四章 結果與討論
    4-1碘化四丁基銨鹽的製備..............................................................................................44
    4-1-1溶劑的選定..............................................................................................................44
    4-1-2溶劑劑量效應對Bu3N+BuI -----> Bu4NI之影響................................................44
    4-1-3溫度對反應Bu3N+BuI----> Bu4NI之影響...........................................................46
    4-2極限電流密度之測定..................................................................................................53
    4-3陰極液濃度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響.....................................53
    4-4陽極液濃度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響.....................................56
    4-5陰、陽極液濃度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗影響之比較
    ...........................................................................................................................................56
    4-6電流密度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能效率消耗之影響.................................64
    4-7陰極液流速對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響......................................67
    4-8陽極液流速對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響......................................69
    4-9陰、陽極液流速對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之比較..............................69
    4-10電解槽隔室寬度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響............................73
    4-11電流效率及電壓效率與無因次操作變數群之關係式.........................................78
    4-12電解-電透析之最適條件............................................................................................83
    第五章 結論.........................................................................................................................88
    參考文獻..............................................................................................................................93
    附錄.....................................................................................................................................100
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    Advisor
  • (王天財)
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