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Student Number 84341011
Author Hsiao-chung Wu(吳孝忠)
Author's Email Address No Public.
Statistics This thesis had been viewed 3604 times. Download 11 times.
Department Chemical and Materials Engineering
Year 2000
Semester 2
Degree Ph.D.
Type of Document Doctoral Dissertation
Language zh-TW.Big5 Chinese
Title Improvement of exhaust emission treatment on motorcycle catalytic converter
Date of Defense 2001-06-29
Page Count 146
Keyword
  • exhaust emission
  • Pd/γ- Al2O3觸媒
  • sol-gel
  • Abstract There are more than ten millions motorcycles in Taiwan. Exhaust emissions from motorcycles became a serious environmental issue. A common characteristic of motorcycles is operating in oxygen deficient conditions. For two-stroke motorcycles, short-circuiting loss and incomplete combustion result in high hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in the exhaust emission. On the other hand, the temperature of the catalyst may exceed 1100 ℃ when CO and HC are oxidized. In order to comply with the more stringent emission regulation in the future, this research will focus on the improvement of the thermal stability and light-off temperature of the catalyst. There are five parts in the thesis.
    In the first part, additives added by impregnation of γ- alumina support for improving the thermal stability is reported. BET surface area and XRD results reveal thatγ-Al2O3 exhibits improved thermal stability by adding 1-5 wt % La or 5-10 wt% Ba after aging at 1100 ℃ for 4 hours. The additives can also reduce the light-off temperature and enhance the conversion of CO and C3H6 for Pt/γ-Al2O3 and Pd/γ-Al2O3. Under oxygen deficient condition, the conversion of CO over Pt/γ-Al2O3 is higher than that of Pd/γ- Al2O3. While the conversion of C3H6 is higher over Pd/γ-Al2O3, and better thermal stability is reported for Pd/γ- Al2O3.
    Improvements of thermal stability of cerium oxide additives in alumina (CeO2-Al2O3) prepared by different methods (impregnation, sol-gel, co-precipitation and physical mixing) are investigated in the second part. The results show that CeO2-Al2O3 prepared by sol-gel method exhibits the largest surface areas, highest Pd dispersion and smallest CeO2 crystalline size than other methods. TPR results also show that the reduction of Pd/CeO2-Al2O3 prepared by sol-gel method shift to lower temperature. In addition, Pd/ CeO2-Al2O3 prepared by sol-gel method exhibits higher activity for CO and C3H6 oxidation. However, the activity of Pd/ CeO2-Al2O3 was inevitably deactivated due to thermal aging at 900 ℃ for 3 hours. Improvement of thermal stability can be achieved by using CeO2-BaO- Al2O3 prepared by sol-gel method as the support for Pd. The catalyst also exhibits better catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation.
    The effects of acid and base treatment of alumina and zirconia support on the light-off temperature of supported Pt and Pd are investigated in the third part. Under stoichiometric conditions, the activities of CO and C3H6 oxidation over the catalysts on supports impregnated with NaOH solution are promoted. In contrast, the activities are suppressed for catalysts on supports impregnated with H2SO4 solution. On the other hand, the activities for C3H8 oxidation are promoted over catalysts on supports impregnated with H2SO4, and are suppressed over catalysts on supports impregnated with NaOH.
    In the fourth part the activities and thermal stability of perovskite,
    La1-xSrxCo1-yMnyO3, and Pd containing perovskite LaCo0.9-xPdxMn0.1O3 are reported. La1-xSrxCo1-yMnyO3 exhibits higher activity than LaCoO3 and LaMnO3 for CO and HC oxidation. EXAFS results reveal that oxygen vacancy around Co ion in LaCoO3 and LaMnO3 increased by Sr, Mn, Co partially substitutes La, Co, and Mn, respectively. The activity is related to oxygen vacancies. The activity of propylene oxidation was furthering promoted when LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3 containing a small amount of Pd. The best activity is observed for the composition of LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3. La, Co, Mn, Pd salts solution impregnated into alumina simultaneously and calcined at 700 ℃for 2 hours with the composition LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3 (LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3/Al2O3) exhibits higher activity and thermal stability than Pd/CeO2-Al2O3 and Pt-Rh/ CeO2-Al2O3. The test results of ECE-R47 driving cycle also reveals that HC and CO conversions on LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3/Al2O3 is close to those on Pt-Rh/CeO2-Al2O3, which is a typical composition of the commercial catalyst for motorcycles.
    In the last part, potential emission control strategies are proposed for motorcycles. For 50 cc two-stroke motorcycles and 125 cc four-stroke motorcycles in Taiwan, the emission control system should include secondary air input and multi-type catalysts in order to comply with the stringent emission regulation in the future.
    Table of Content 摘要 …………………………………………………….…………….I
    圖目錄 ………………………………………………….…………….XII
    表目錄 ………………………………………………….…………….XVIII
    第一章 緒論 …………………………………………….………….1
    一、前言 …………………………………………….…………...1
    二、汽、機車排放污染物 …………………………….………...4
    三、觸媒轉化器 …………………………………………………5
    3.1. 基層載體 …………………………………….………….6
    3.2. 洗覆層 ………………………………………….……….8
    3.3. 貴重金屬 ……………………………………….……….9
    3.4. 促進劑 ………………………………………………….10
    四、研究動機 ……………………………………………………16
    第二章 實驗設備與方法 ……………………………………………18
    一、藥品及氣體 …………………………………………………18
    二、實驗 …………………………………………………………19
    2.1. X-射線繞射分析(XRD) ………………………….……...19
    2.2. 比表面積(BET)分析 …………………………….……...19
    2.3. 氫氣的程溫脫附法(H2-TPD) ………………….……….19
    2.4. 活性金屬分散度量測 …………………………….…….19
    2.5. 指示劑測觸媒酸鹼性強度 ……………………….……21
    2.6 X-ray吸收光譜 …………………………………..………22
    2.7. 反應活性測試 ………………………………………….22
    2.8. 實車法規測試 ………………………………….………27
    第三章 氧化鋁洗覆層耐熱性研究 ……………………………….28
    一、前言 …………………………………………………………28
    二、實驗方法 ……………………………………………………29
    三、結果與討論 …………………………………………………30
    3.1. 載體表面積量測 ………………………………….…….30
    3.2. 晶相結構分析 …………………………………….…….32
    3.3. 熱穩定性添加劑對貴重金屬還原性的影響 ……….….35
    3.3.1. 熱穩定性添加劑對鉑觸媒還原性的影響 …….…..35
    3.3.2. 熱穩定性添加劑對鈀觸媒還原性的影響 ……..….36
    3.4. 活性金屬表面積量測 ………………………………..…38
    3.5. 反應活性測試 …………………………………………..40
    3.5.1.熱穩定性添加劑對鉑觸媒於CO與丙烯氧化反應影響40
    3.5.2.熱穩定性添加劑對鈀觸媒於CO與丙烯氧化反應影響42
    四、結論……………………………………………………………43
    第四章 觸媒擔體的組成及合成方法對於Pd觸媒活性影響….…….45
    一、簡介 …………………………………………………………45
    二、實驗方法 ……………………………………………………47
    2.1. 觸媒製備 …………………………….………………….47
    2.2. 觸媒活性促進劑添加方式 ……………………….…….48
    三、結果與討論 ………………………………………….……...50
    3.1. 製備方法對於Pd/CeO2/Al2O3觸媒特性之影響 ….…….50
    3.1.1. 觸媒擔體比表面積比較 …………………….………50
    3.1.2. 觸媒擔體之二氧化鈰結晶顆粒大小 ……….………52
    3.1.3. 觸媒之Pd分散度比較 ……………………….………55
    3.1.4. 程溫還原 (TPR) …………………………….………56
    3.1.5. 製備方法對Pd/CeO2/Al2O3氧CO及HC活性的影響….59
    3.1.6. 二氧化鈰含量對於Pd觸媒活性的影響 …….………67
    3.2. 觸媒活性促進劑對於Pd觸媒活性的影響 …………….72
    3.2.1. 添加劑對於擔體比表面積的影響 …………………72
    3.2.2. 添加劑對於氧化鈰結晶顆粒大小的影響 …….……74
    3.3.3. 添加劑對於觸媒Pd分散性的影響 …………….……76
    3.3.4. 添加劑對於Pd氧化CO及丙烯活性之影響 …….…..76
    四、結論 …………………………………………………….…...80
    第五章 擔體酸鹼性對Pt及Pd觸媒氧化CO及HC活性的影響…..81
    一、簡 介 …………………………………………….…………81
    1.1. 固態酸鹼觸媒 ………………………………………….81
    1.2. 酸鹼的來源 …………………………………………….81
    1.3. 酸鹼性質的鑑定 ……………………………………….84
    1.4. 擔體效應 ……………………………………………….84
    1.5. 以硫酸改質擔體性質的影響 ………………………….85
    1.6. 研究方向 ……………………………………………….85
    二、實驗方法 …………………………………….……………..86
    2.1. 觸煤的製備 ……………………………….……………86
    2.2. 觸媒酸鹼性強度鑑定 …………………..………..…….86
    三、結果與討論 ………………………………………………...86
    3.1. 觸媒特性 ………………………………….……………86
    3.2. Pt觸媒在酸鹼性擔體上對CO及C3H6氧化反應的影響 .88
    3.3. 擔體酸鹼性對於Pt觸媒氧化C3H6及C3H8活性之影響 ..93
    3.4. Pt與Pd觸媒對C3H6與C3H8氧化反應 …………………...94
    四、結論 …………………………………………………………95
    第六章 以鈣鈦礦型氧化物提升鈀觸媒之性能 ………………96
    一、前言 …………………………………………………………97
    二、實驗 …………………………………………………………97
    2.1. Perovskite觸媒製備 …………………………………….97
    2.2. 含貴重金屬觸媒之製備 …………………….………….97
    2.3. ECE-R47測試程序用之目標車 ………………………..98
    三、結果與討論 …………………………………….………….99
    3.1. La1-xSrxCo1-yMnyO3之XAS分析 ……………………….99
    3.2. La1-xSrxCo1-yMnyO3系列觸媒對於CO與C3H6反應活性的比較 ………………………………………….………….101
    3.3. 以Pd取代Co對於LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3觸媒活性之影響 ….103
    3.4. 煅燒溫度對於LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3/Al2O3觸媒反應活性之影響 …………………………………………….…….104
    3.5. LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3/Al2O3觸媒表面鑑定 …………….106
    3.6. 觸媒載體對於Pd觸媒反應活性之影響 ………………111
    3.7. 歐洲ECE-47法規測試 ………………………….……..114
    四、結論 ………………………………………………….…….116
    第七章 觸媒轉化器在50㏄二行程與125㏄四行程機車上的應用116
    一、簡介 ……………………………………………….……….116
    二、實驗 …………………………………………….………….117
    2.1. 排氣系統 ………………………………………..………117
    2.2. 模擬氣體測試 ………………………………….………109
    2.3. 車體動力計耐久測試 …………………………….……120
    2.4. 15,000公里實車路試 ………………………………...121
    三、結果與討論 …………………………………………….…122
    3.1. 二次空氣系統應用於二行程機車 ……………………122
    3.2. 二次空氣對二行程機車ECE-R40測試結果的影響 ….124
    3.3. 觸媒系統對二行程機車的影響 ……….……………...127
    3.4. 加裝觸媒對四行程機車的影響 ………………………130
    3.5. 觸媒耐久模擬相關性探討 ……………………………130
    3.6. Pd觸媒在四行程機車上的應用 …………….………...132
    四、結論 ……………………………………………………….133
    第八章 結論 …………………………………………………………137
    參考文獻 ……………………………………………………………..139
    圖 目 錄
    圖1-1各國機車排氣法規標準的比較 …………………….……..2
    圖1-2觸媒轉化器裝配於排器管中的位置與二次空氣導入的位置示意圖…………………………………………………….…..3
    圖1-3空燃比與CO、HC及NOx轉化率的關係,觸媒轉化率最佳區段(Operation window)為觸媒轉化率可維持80 %的轉化之空燃比。…………………………………………………….…..3
    圖1-4蜂巢狀(Honeycomb)載體, 其中(A), (B), (C)為陶瓷載體; (D), (E)為金屬載體,機車多使用金屬載體,汽車多使用陶瓷載體。……………………………………………………... 7
    圖1-5洗覆層的大表面積可有效分散活性金屬於載體表面……...9
    圖1-6觸媒轉化器中活性衰退因素:(A)高溫致使貴金屬燒結、(B)高溫致使載體表面積降低、(C)汽油中的鉛、硫與機油中的磷對貴重金屬的毒化現象及(D)碳氫化合物燃燒不完全產生的積碳遮蔽作用………………………………………….….. 11
    圖1-7Perovskite type結構:A ion 為稀土族與鹼土族離子;B ion 為過渡金屬離子……………………………………….……14
    圖2-1氫氣程溫還原的裝置…………………………………….…..20
    圖2-2CO化學吸附測試系統裝置圖.………………………….…...21
    圖2-3活性測試裝置…………………………………………….…..23
    圖2-4(a)ECE-R40市區行車型態,機車於暖車十公里並怠速40秒後,依據市區行車型態模式連續行駛四次,收集廢氣進行分析26
    圖2-4(b)ECE-R47市區行車型態,機車於怠速40秒後,依據市區行車型態模式連續行駛八次,前四次行車型態為暖車,後四次行車型態收集廢氣進行分析…………………………..…….26
    圖2-5ECE-R40 & ECE-R47 污染法規測試設備………………….27
    圖3-1 (a)不同含量的鉑觸媒經1100 oC處理後之XRD圖譜,鉑晶相位置2θ為39.8o與46.3o (a) Pt含量0.5 wt.% (b) Pt含量1.0 wt.% (c) Pt含量2.0 wt.%……………………………..……………..33
    圖3-1 (b)含浸5 wt.%的La, Ba, Ce之Pt 2 wt.%/Al2O3觸媒經1100 oC處理後之XRD圖譜 (a)Pt 2 wt.%/La2O3(5 wt.%)/Al2O3;(b)Pt 2 wt.%/BaO(5 wt.%)/Al2O3;(c)Pt 2 wt.%/CeO2(5 wt.%) /Al2O3;(d)Pt2 wt.%/Al2O3………..……….……………..….33
    圖3-2 (a)不同含量鈀的觸媒經1100oC處理後之XRD圖譜,鈀晶相位置2θ為33.8o (a) Pd含量0.5 wt.% (b) Pd含量1.0 wt.% (c) Pd含量2.0 wt.%…………………………..………….…………...34
    圖3-2 (b)含浸5wt.%的Ba, La, Ce之Pd 2wt.%/Al2O3觸媒經1100 oC處理後之XRD圖譜 (a) Pd 2 wt.%/Al2O3;(b) Pd 2 wt.%/BaO(5 wt.%)/Al2O3;(c) Pd 2 wt.%/La2O3(5 wt.%)/ Al2O3;(d) Pd 2 wt.%/CeO2(5 wt.%)/Al2O3………….34
    圖3-3分別添加5 wt.% BaO, CeO2, La2O3的Pt2wt.%/Al2O3觸媒H2-TPR圖譜,其中(A)為新鮮態Pt觸媒H2-TPR圖譜 (B)為老化態Pt觸媒H2-TPR圖譜;(a)Pt 2 wt.% /Al2O3;(b) Pt 2 wt.%BaO 5 wt.%/Al2O3;(c) Pt 2 wt.%CeO2 5 wt.%/ Al2O3;(d)Pt 2 wt.%La2O3 5 wt.%/Al2O3……………..…..…36
    圖3-4分別添加5 wt.% BaO, CeO2, La2O3的Pd2wt.%/Al2O3觸媒H2-TPR圖譜,其中(A)為新鮮態Pd觸媒H2-TPR圖譜(B)為老化態Pd觸媒H2-TPR圖譜;(a) Pd 2 wt.% /Al2O3;(b) Pd 2 wt.%BaO 5 wt.%/Al2O3;(c) Pd 2 wt.%CeO2 5 wt.%/ Al2O3 (d) Pd 2 wt.%La2O3 5 wt.%/Al2O3………………….…..37
    圖4-1不同製備方法合成之觸媒擔體,於不同煅燒溫度下的比表面積比較……………………………………………………...51
    圖4-2 (a)不同製備方法合成Pd/5 wt.%CeO2/Al2O3觸媒的XRD圖譜;A: 溶膠凝膠法;B:含浸法;C:物理混合法;D:共沉澱.…..53
    圖4-2 (b)不同煅燒溫度下,溶膠凝膠法與含浸法製備Pd/5 wt.%CeO2/ Al2O3觸媒的XRD圖譜比較;A: 溶膠凝膠法(500 ℃);B: 溶膠凝膠法(950 ℃);C: 含浸法(500 ℃);D: 含浸法(950 ℃).53
    圖4-3不同煅燒溫度下,不同製備方法製備之觸媒CeO2結晶顆粒大小比較……………………………………………………...54
    圖4-4不同煅燒溫度下,鈀於不同製備方法觸媒表面上的分散度比較…………………………………………………………..55
    圖4-5(a) CeO2、Pd/CeO2與Pd/Al2O3層溫還原圖譜圖比較;(b)不同CeO2含量(5或20 wt%),於溶膠凝膠法或含浸法製備觸媒的層溫還原圖譜圖比…………………………………...57
    圖4-5不同製備方法合成之Pd/5 wt%CeO2/Al2O3觸媒的層溫還原圖譜圖比較:(c)煅燒溫度為500 ℃;(d)煅燒溫度為950 ℃..58
    圖4-6Pd含浸於不同製備方法合成之CeO2/Al2O3擔體或CeO2、Al2O3(Sol-gel)上,於S=1或0.5時,對CO與丙烯氧化反應的比較;(a) Fresh, 煅燒溫度500 ℃;(b)Aged, 煅燒溫度950 ℃..60
    圖4-7Pd含浸於溶膠凝膠法或含浸法製備CeO2含量為5及20 mole%之Pd/CeO2/ Al2O3觸媒,於S=1或0.5時,對CO與丙烯氧化反應的比較;(a) Fresh, 煅燒溫度500 ℃;(b)Aged, 煅燒溫度950 ℃…………………………………………….…68
    圖4-8以溶膠凝膠法合成含有鋇&鈰或鋇&鈰擔體經不同處理後之XRD圖譜;A: Pd/CeO2/BaO-Al2O3(sol),煅燒溫度500 ℃;B:Pd/CeO2/ BaO-Al2O3(sol),煅燒溫度950 ℃; C: Pd/CeO2-BaO-Al2O3(sol),煅燒溫度500 ℃; D: Pd/CeO2- BaO-Al2O3(so),煅燒溫度950 ℃…………………………….75
    圖5-1Bronsted acid and Lewis acid 結構….……………….………82
    圖5-2氧化鋁之酸鹼結構……………………………….…………..82
    圖5-3Pt/NaOH/ZrO2、Pt/ZrO2及Pt/H2SO4/ZrO2於S=1(化學計量點)反應條 件下,對於CO與丙烯氧化的反應曲線……………89
    圖5-4Pt/NaOH/Al2O3、Pt/Al2O3及Pt/H2SO4/Al2O3於S=1反應條件對於CO與丙烯氧化的反應曲線………………………….……91
    圖6-1Normalized Co K-edge XANES spectra of La1-xSrxCo1-yMnyO3 100
    圖6-2Normalized Mn K-edge XANES spectra of La1-xSrxCo1-yMnyO3………………………………….………..100
    圖6-3LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3與LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3觸媒CO與HC轉化率比較;●: LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3; ◆: LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3…………104
    圖6-46-4 A: LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3 ;B: LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3;C: LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3/Al2O3之XRD圖譜;煅燒溫度700℃…………………………………………………………..….105
    圖6-5LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3、LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3、LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3/ Al2O3與Pd0.06/LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3/Al2O3觸媒之H2-TPR圖譜;A: LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3,B: LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3,C: LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3/Al2O3,D: Pd0.06/LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3/Al2O3107
    圖6-6LaCo0.9Mn0.1O3、LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3與LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3/ Al2O3觸媒於Co, Mn與La的K-吸收邊緣之XANES圖譜…………………………………………108
    圖7-1二行程排器管中加裝觸媒轉化器與二次空氣簡圖…….…..118
    圖7-2四行程排器管中加裝觸媒轉化器與二次空氣簡圖…….…..119
    圖7-3模擬機車排放廢氣的反應系統………………………….…..120
    圖7-4高低溫耐久100小時測試的模式……………………….…..121
    圖7-5二次空氣強制導入量對ECE-R40測試時CO與HC轉化率的影響…………………………………………………….…..122
    圖7-6在各定速下不同導入位置(距引擎排氣口距離)與二次空氣流量的關係……………………………………………….…..123
    圖7-7簧片閥與消音器導入口間距離,在各定速下,二次空氣流量變化…………………………………………………….…..123
    圖7-8在ECE-R40 195秒的測試循環中,導入二次空氣及加裝觸媒對空燃比(A/F)的動態分析..……………………………..…..125
    圖7-9在ECE-R40 195秒的測試循環中,導入二次空氣及加裝觸媒對氧的動態分析..…………………………………………….125
    圖7-10在ECE-R40 195秒的測試循環中,導入二次空氣及加裝觸媒對CO的動態分析…………………………………………….126
    圖7-11在ECE-R40 195秒的測試循環中,導入二次空氣及加裝觸媒對氧的動態分析………………………………………..…….126
    圖7-12在二次空氣導入下,前觸媒及主觸媒在各定速下的CO與HC轉化率…………………………………………………..…….130
    圖7-13加裝觸媒對二行程及四行程機車馬力的影響………..…….130
    圖7-14100 hr耐久過程觸媒於ECE-R40測試時之CO與HC轉化率(二行程耐久車)……………………………………………….131
    圖7-15100 hr耐久過程觸媒於ECE-R40測試時之CO與HC轉化率(二行程參考車)……………………………………….……....131
    圖7-16實車15,000 km道路耐久測試………………………………..132
    圖7-17一系列新鮮觸媒於不同空燃比(A/F)時對於CO轉化率的比較(A即是NaOH)………………………………………..……..…134
    圖7-18一系列新鮮觸媒於不同空燃比(A/F)時對於HC的轉化率的比較(A即是NaOH)………………………………………..…..134
    圖7-19一系列劣化觸媒(1100 ℃,4hr處理)於不同空燃比(A/F)時對於CO轉化率的比較(A即是NaOH)…………………..…..…..135
    圖7-20一系列劣化觸媒(1100 ℃,4hr處理)於不同空燃比(A/F)時對於HC轉化率的比較(A即是NaOH)……………………..…….135
    圖7-21PtRh/A1203-CeO2觸媒15,000 km路試的結果….…….….…..136
    圖7-22Pd/NaOH/A12O3-CeO2觸媒15,000 km路試的結果….…….…136
    表 目 錄
    表2-1不同pKa值指示劑及其酸鹼態下的顏色………………...22
    表2-2反應活性測試之氣體進料比例…….……………………...24
    表3-1以初溼含浸法添加5 wt.%不同添加劑對氧化鋁表面積的影響…………………………………………………………29
    表3-2經1100℃處理後各觸媒的晶相結構與表面積之比較……31
    表3-3分別添加5 wt.% BaO, CeO2, La2O3的Pt與Pd觸媒對於CO飽和吸附量…………………………………………………39
    表3-4分別添加5 wt.% BaO, CeO2, La2O3的Pt與Pd觸媒,經1100 oC處理後,以X光繞射線寬推算貴金屬的結晶尺寸……..40
    表3-5分別添加5 wt.% BaO, CeO2或La2O3的Pt與Pd觸媒於S=1反應條件下之起燃溫度(Pt或Pd含量為2 wt.%)…………..….41
    表3-6分別添加5 wt.% BaO, CeO2, La2O3的Pt與Pd觸媒於S<1反應條件下之起燃溫度(Pt或Pd含量為2 wt.%)…………..….42
    表4-1不同製備方法製備之Pd觸媒組成及代號…………….…..49
    表4-2添加活性促進劑之Pd觸媒製備條件及代號……………...50
    表4-3不同製備方法合成之Pd觸媒於不同煅燒溫度下的比表面積、CeO2平均粒徑與Pd分散度比較…………….…..……51
    表4-4Pd含浸於不同製備方法合成之CeO2/Al2O3擔體或CeO2、Al2O3(Sol-gel)上,於S=1或0.5反應條件,煅燒溫度500 ℃與950 ℃之活性比較……………………………….………..65
    表4-5比較溶膠凝膠法與含浸法合成中添加劑對觸媒對表面性質的影響(煅燒條件500 ℃;950 ℃)…………………….73
    表4-6比較溶膠凝膠法與含浸法合成之不同添加劑對觸媒反應活性之影響(煅燒條件500 ℃;950 ℃)………………….76
    表5-1各觸媒的BET比表面積、金屬分散度及Ho物性分析…...87
    表5-2各觸媒於S=1對於CO及丙烯氧化之起燃溫度(T50)………88
    表5-3各Pt觸媒對於丙烯及丙烷氧化反應之起燃溫度(S=1)…...93
    表5-4各Pd觸媒對於丙烯及丙烷氧化反應之起燃溫度(S=1)…..94
    表6-1觸媒轉化器規格……………………………………………98
    表6-2測試車規格表………………………………………………98
    表6-3La1-xSrxCo1-yMnyO3 在Co K edgea 的EXAFS 分析結果…100
    表6-4La1-xSrxCo1-yMnyO3 在Mn K edge 的EXAFS 分析結果…101
    表6-5La1-xSrxCo1-yMnyO3觸媒於S=1反應條件下之活性測試結果103
    表6-6 LaCo0.9-xPdxMn0.1O3系列觸媒於S=1對於CO與C3H6起燃溫度…………………………………………………………105
    表6-7煅燒溫度對LaCo0.84Pd0.06Mn0.1O3/Al2O3於S=1時反應活性之影響……………………………………………………....106
    表6-8Pt-Rh與Pd觸媒對於HC及CO氧化之T50溫度比較……..…113
    表6-9不含二次空氣ECE-R47污染測試結果…………………….115
    表6-10含二次空氣ECE-R47污染測試結果……………………….115
    表7-150 ㏄二行程與125㏄四行程機車進行ECE-R40 法規測試結果………………………………………………………...117
    表7-250 ㏄二行程與125㏄四行程機車測試車規格…………….118
    表7-3觸媒規格…….……………………………………………..119
    表7-4模擬機車排放廢氣的組成……………………….………..120
    表7-5進行高低溫耐久100 小時的測試條件……….……………121
    表7-6彙整4個速度段CO與HC的轉化率變化…………………..127
    表7-7觸媒系統中觸媒的規格………….………………………..128
    表7-8觸媒位置與孔密度對四行程機車污染物轉化率的影響…129
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    160Kollmann, K., et al., SAE Technical Paper 940472(1994)
    161Gonzalez-Valasco et al., Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 12, Page 61(1997)
    162H. Tanaka, et al., SAE Technical Paper 950256(1995)
    163M. Harkonen et al., SAE Technical Paper 94035(1994)
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    165J.S. Hepburn, et at., SAE Technical Paper 941058(1994)
    Advisor
  • Sze-Ming Yang(楊思明)
  • Files
  • 84341011.pdf
  • disapprove authorization
    Date of Submission 2001-06-29

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