碩博士論文 973202069 詳細資訊


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姓名 陳聖鈺(Sheng-yu Chen)
查詢紙本館藏  
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畢業系所 土木工程研究所(Civil Engineering)
畢業學位 碩士(Master) 畢業時期 098學年第2學期
論文名稱(中) 隨機旅行時間下災後工程搶修物料補給排程之研究
論文名稱(英) Logistical support scheduling for emergency repair work after a major disaster under stochastic travel times
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摘要(中) 重大天然災害的發生,將會造成人民生命財產的重大損失,更會摧毀原有的交通以及維生系統,使得災後緊急救援的設備與物資無法於第一時間進入災區。因此如何在最短時間內將受損道路搶通,便是緊急救援最重要的一步。實務上災後緊急救援除了搶修工作隊,還必須有補給工作隊支援搶修工作隊所需之物料。若物料無法及時供應搶修工作隊,將造成搶修的延遲,使得整體搶修排程大亂,進而影響整體救災的效率,而造成傷亡的增加。以往有針對災後搶修補給物料的問題進行研究,估算平均旅行時間以進行工作隊排程規劃。然而此作法卻忽略了實務上旅行時間的隨機性,若隨機性擾動過大時,則可能使原規劃結果失去優越性,亦即最佳化補給排程結果可能不為實際最佳排程。
緣此,本研究利用時空網路流動的技巧,在總運送成本最小化的目標下,考量實際營運時旅行時間之隨機變動狀況與實務上相關的營運限制,並配合緊急搶修工程排程計畫,發展一隨機旅行時間下物料後勤補給排程模式,之後,修正隨機性旅行時間為一固定平均旅行時間,發展一確定性災後物料補給作業排程模式,以期輔助當局有效地規劃物料補給排程。另外,本研究並發展一模擬評估方法,以評估實務排程、確定性與隨機性排程規劃的結果於實際營運環境中之績效優劣。此模式可定式為一含額外限制式之整數多重貨物網路流動問題,屬NP-hard問題,故為有效地求解實務大型問題,本研究利用問題分解策略及貪婪式演算法之觀念,並配合使用數學規劃軟體CPLEX,發展一啟發解法求解。最後,本研究以類似921大地震規模之災害為例,測試模式及求解演算法的績效,結果顯示本研究所發展之模式與啟發解法較實務作法為佳,可有效率地求解災後物料補給排程之規劃。
摘要(英) Natural disasters are inevitable and inflict devastating effects, in terms of human injuries and property damage. These damages can disrupt the traffic and lifeline systems, obstructing the operation of rescue machines, rescue vehicles, ambulances and relief workers. In practice, not only the repair work teams rescue the disaster area, but also supply work teams support the logistic to the repair work teams. If the demand of repair work teams is not supplied in time, the schedule of repair work would be delayed, which will not only affect the rescue efficiency but can also increase human injuries. Most of the logistical models in the past were formulated with the average travel times, meaning that stochastic disturbances arising from variations in vehicle travel times in actual operations were neglected. In the worst case scenario, where vehicle travel times fluctuate wildly during daily operations, the planned schedule could be disturbed enough to lose its optimality.
Hence, we employ network flow techniques, with the objective of minimizing the total system cost, as well as the emergency repair schedule and related operating constraints, to construct a logistical support scheduling model under stochastic travel times. Then, we modified the variable travel time parameters in the stochastic supply work scheduling model as fixed variable to develop a deterministic scheduling model to help the authorities for planning effective logistical support schedules. In addition, we also develop a simulation-based evaluation method to evaluate the schedules obtained from the manual method, the deterministic and the stochastic scheduling models, in simulated real world operations. Our model is formulated as an integer multiple-commodity network flow problem with side constraints which is characterized as NP-hard. To efficiently solve realistically large problems occurring in practice, we use a problem decomposition technique and greedy algorithm, coupled with the use of a mathematical programming solver CPLEX, to develop a heuristic algorithm. Finally, to evaluate the model and the solution algorithm in practice, we perform a case study using real data of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan. The test results show that the models and the solution algorithm are better than actual operations and would be useful for logistical support scheduling under stochastic travel times.
關鍵字(中)
  • 多重貨物網路流動問題
  • 時空網路
  • 物料補給排程
  • 緊急搶修排程
  • 隨機旅行時間
  • 關鍵字(英)
  • emergency repair scheduling
  • logistical support scheduling
  • mixed integer multiple commodity network flow
  • stochastic travel times
  • time-space networks
  • 論文目次 中文摘要 ........................................................................................................................ I
    ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................. II
    誌謝 ............................................................................................................................. III
    目錄 ............................................................................................................................. IV
    圖目錄 ......................................................................................................................... VI
    表目錄 ........................................................................................................................ VII
    第一章 緒論 .................................................................................................................. 1
    1.1 研究背景與動機............................................................................................. 1
    1.2 研究目的與範圍............................................................................................. 2
    1.3 研究方法與流程............................................................................................. 3
    第二章 文獻回顧.......................................................................................................... 5
    2.1 災後工程緊急搶修作業排程相關文獻 ........................................................ 5
    2.2 緊急物流配送相關文獻................................................................................. 7
    2.3 時空網路相關文獻....................................................................................... 10
    2.4 隨機性需求擾動之相關理論與文獻 ........................................................... 14
    2.4.1 隨機性需求擾動相關理論................................................................ 14
    2.4.2 隨機擾動相關文獻 ............................................................................. 17
    2.5 含額外限制之整數網路流動問題啟發式演算法 ....................................... 21
    2.6 小結 ............................................................................................................... 23
    第三章 模式架構........................................................................................................ 25
    3.1 現況分析與問題描述.................................................................................... 25
    3.2 隨機性之災後補給排程作業模式 ............................................................... 28
    3.2.1 模式之基本假設或給定資訊............................................................ 28
    3.2.2 時空網路 ............................................................................................ 31
    3.2.3 路口通行限制 .................................................................................... 49
    3.2.4 符號說明 ............................................................................................. 51
    3.2.5 數學定式 ............................................................................................. 52
    3.3 確定性之災後補給排程作業模式 .............................................................. 53
    3.3.1 確定性模式之時空網路.................................................................... 54
    3.3.2 符號說明 ............................................................................................ 56
    3.3.3 數學定式 ............................................................................................ 57
    3.4 模擬評估方法............................................................................................... 58
    3.5 模式檢討 ....................................................................................................... 59
    3.5.1 符號說明 ............................................................................................ 63
    3.5.2 數學定式(隨機性) ............................................................................. 65
    3.5.3 數學定式(確定性) ............................................................................. 66
    3.6 小結 ............................................................................................................... 66
    第四章 模式求解........................................................................................................ 67
    4.1 啟發解法架構................................................................................................ 67
    4.2 目標值下限解................................................................................................ 69
    4.3 小結 ................................................................................................................ 73
    第五章 範例測試........................................................................................................ 74
    5.1 資料分析 ........................................................................................................ 74
    5.1.1 道路路網資料 .................................................................................... 74
    5.1.2 運送能量資料 .................................................................................... 78
    5.1.3 搶修相關資料 .................................................................................... 79
    5.1.4 成本資料 ............................................................................................. 82
    5.2 模式發展 ........................................................................................................ 84
    5.2.1 問題規模 ............................................................................................ 84
    5.2.2 模式輸入資料 .................................................................................... 85
    5.3 電腦演算環境與設定.................................................................................... 86
    5.3.1 電腦演算環境 .................................................................................... 86
    5.3.2 相關程式設定 .................................................................................... 86
    5.3.3 模式輸出資料 .................................................................................... 87
    5.4 測試結果與分析............................................................................................ 88
    5.4.1 隨機狀況數目 ..................................................................................... 88
    5.4.2 隨機性災後補給排程作業結果......................................................... 89
    5.4.3 模式比較分析 .................................................................................... 91
    5.5 敏感度分析 ................................................................................................... 93
    5.5.1 需求量變動之敏感度分析................................................................ 93
    5.5.2 儲存站區位之敏感度分析................................................................ 96
    5.5.3 車流非預期懲罰成本中之趕工成本( q ) .......................................... 99
    5.5.4 車流非預期懲罰成本中影響搶修工程之機率(λ ) ........................ 100
    5.6 車輛規模之方案分析................................................................................. 102
    5.7 問題規模之情境分析.................................................................................. 106
    5.8 小結 .............................................................................................................. 107
    第六章 結論與建議.................................................................................................. 109
    6.1 結論 .............................................................................................................. 109
    6.2 建議 .............................................................................................................. 110
    6.3 貢獻 ............................................................................................................. 111
    參考文獻 .................................................................................................................... 112
    附 錄 ........................................................................................................................ 120
    附錄一 CPLEX Callable Library Code ............................................................ 120
    附錄二 隨機狀況模擬數目測試結果 .............................................................. 121
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    指導教授
  • 顏上堯 (Shang-Yao Yan)
  • 口試日期 2009-07-06 繳交日期 2010-03-01

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